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User:Hogü-456/Gesamtes Wissen der Menschheit

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Diese Seite basiert auf der Seite All Human Knowledge, die es sich zum Ziel gemacht hat einen Überblick über das gesamte menschliche Wissen zu geben. Ich habe für das Übersetzen um Erlaubnis gefragt. Die ursprüngliche Seite befindet sich unter folgendem Link und stammt von Benutzer Emijrp en:User:Emijrp/All Human Knowledge.

Preserving all human knowledge for posterity. It is all-important.
Wikimedia servers, holding terabyte (Q79741) of text and images.[2]
This page, a catalogue of catalogues of all human knowledge, is only 301,326 bytes in size. It can be stored on a 5¼-inch floppy disk (Q5293).
The 1 billionth edit for all Wikimedia projects took place on April 16, 2010. (See counter)
The Voyager Golden Record (Q156315) are gramophone record (Q178588) (listen in YouTube) which were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977. They contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life (Q181508) form, or for future humans, who may find them.

Die Idee das gesamte Wissen der Menschheit in einer einzelnen Arbeit, wenn auch nicht not in a single place,[3] ist sehr umfangreich. Dieses Projekt möchte die Zahl der Artikel veranschaulichen, die benötigt werden um das Gesamte Wissen der Menschheit abzubilden. As of September 2018, English Wikipedia (Q328) has 5,712,318 articles[4] and Wikidata (Q2013) includes 50,131,286 items.[5] This page still in expansion estimates that the total notable articles figure is over 107,848,942. At current creation rate, 8,000 new items per day,[6] Wikidata singularity will occur in 2040s (Q651007), in the same date range of technological singularity (Q237525).[7] It will be the first time in history that all human knowledge is stored as machine-readable data (Q6723621) and ready to be consumed, understood and used by computers or any device.

"This is a work that cannot be completed except by a society of men of letters and skilled workmen, each working separately on his own part, but all bound together solely by their zeal for the best interests of the human race and a feeling of mutual good will." –Denis Diderot (Q448), Encyclopédie (Q447) (1751–1766)

Viele Menschen haben es sich zur Lebensaufgabe gemacht Wissen aus einem bestimmten Bereich zusammenzutragen und für die Nachwelt zu erhalten. Besondere Beispiele sind Vivian Maier (Q200890), eine nanny (Q936969) welche 150.000 Fotografien hauptsächlich von Menschen und Architektur während ihres Lebens aufnahm;[8] Paul Mawhinney (Q31818556), who archived a copy of every sold album growing a 3 million vinyl collection;[9] Henry Spencer (Q5358365), a computer scientist that preserved over 2 million Usenet (Q193162) messages onto magnetic tapes[10] or Marion Stokes (Q17612042), who recorded hundreds of thousands of hours of television news footage spanning 35 years.[11]

"Like all persons of the Library, I have traveled in my youth; I have wandered in search of a book, perhaps the catalogue of catalogues..." –Jorge Luis Borges (Q909), The Library of Babel (Q473) (1941)

Vor der Wikipedia gab es andere Projekte, die das Gesamte Wissen der Menschheit in einem Werk sammelten, nachfolgend ein paar Beispiele:

Also, hypothetical cases exist: Encyclopedia Galactica (Q468) (1980) by Carl Sagan (Q410) in Cosmos (Q1194705), Permanent World Encyclopaedia (Q31842963) (1936–1938) by H. G. Wells (Q42511) and Memex (Q471) (1945) by Vannevar Bush (Q299595). Finally, there are imaginary examples too: "The Universal Library" (1901) by Kurd Lasswitz (Q61453), "The Total Library" essay and The Library of Babel (Q473) (1941) by Jorge Luis Borges (Q909), Encyclopedia Galactica (Q468) (1942) in Foundation series (Q1564644) by Isaac Asimov (Q34981) and the Akashic records (Q416171).

Furthermore, there are thousands of archives (Q166118), library (Q7075) and museum (Q33506) all over the world preserving human knowledge in several formats: book (Q571), manuscript (Q87167), academic journal (Q737498), newspaper (Q11032), magazine (Q41298), sound and music recording (Q13557414), video (Q34508), play-scripts, patent (Q253623), database (Q8513), map (Q4006), postage stamp (Q37930), print (Q11060274), drawing (Q93184) and more. Some of the largest ones are: British Library (Q23308) (170 million items[12]), Library of Congress (Q131454) (155 million items[13]), Russian State Library (Q1048694) (43 million items[14]), National Diet Library (Q477675) (35 million items[15]), National Library of China (Q732353) (31 million items[16]) and Bibliothèque nationale de France (Q193563) (31 million items[17]).

"There is no practical obstacle whatever now to the creation of an efficient index to all human knowledge, ideas and achievements, to the creation, that is, of a complete planetary memory for all mankind." –H. G. Wells (Q42511), World Brain (Q470) (1937)

For completeness of sister projects, see § Sister projects. For an estimate about lost knowledge, see § Destroyed knowledge and en:Wikipedia:There is a deadline.

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Contents

ZusammenfassungEdit

KünsteEdit

The the arts (Q2018526) are composed of many endeavors (or artforms) united by their employment of the human creative impulse.

Main articles: outline of the visual arts (Q7112797), elements of art (Q1277572) and Principles of art (Q3454290)

ArchitekturEdit

architecture (Q12271) (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton, from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter, mason") is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

Main articles: outline of architecture (Q7112558) and list of buildings (Q3176199)
Main categories: Category:Architecture lists (Q7470404) and Category:Lists of buildings and structures (Q7470265)

Note: some of these items may overlap

DenkmälerEdit

A monument (Q4989906) is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture.

See also: list of heritage registers (Q2471925), list of Sites of Community Importance by country (Q6597074) and Wikipedia:WikiProject Historic sites
See also categories: Heritage registers by country
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For more monuments figures, see Commons:Monuments database/Statistics. For a map, see Wiki Loves Monuments map.

Kino und FernsehenEdit

A film (Q11424) is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording (Q13557414) photographic images with camera (Q15328), or by creating images using animation (Q11425) techniques or visual effects (Q8317). The process of filmmaking (Q932586) has developed into an art (Q735) form and industry. See also Category:Film-related lists.

This section excludes biographies.

CraftsEdit

A craft (Q2207288) is a branch of a profession (Q28640) that requires some particular kind of skilled work. In historical sense, particularly as pertinent to the Medieval history and earlier, the term is usually applied towards people occupied in small-scale production of goods. See also Outline of crafts (Q3375028) and Category:Glossaries of crafts.

LiteraturEdit

literature (Q8242) (from Latin (Q397) litterae (plural); letter) is the art (Q735) of written works. The word literature literally means: "things made from letters". Literature is commonly classified as having two major forms—fiction and non-fiction—and two major techniques—poetry and prose.

Theatres are counted in #Architecture.

This section excludes biographies and libraries.

Performing artsEdit

performing arts (Q184485) are a form of art (Q735) in which artists use their voices and/or their bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts (Q36649), which is when artists use paint/canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include several disciplines, each performed in front of a live audience.

Visual artsEdit

visual arts (Q36649) are a form of art (Q735) in which artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects.

GeografieEdit

geography (Q1071) is the science (Q336) that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth (Q2). This section covers every human geography settlement and every physical geography location in the world.

See also Category:Geography-related lists, Category:Lists of places, GEOnet Names Server (Q1194038)[74] and GeoNames (Q830106).[75]

Human geographyEdit

 
1570 world map by Abraham Ortelius (Q232916).

human geography (Q12831143) is the branch of the social science (Q34749) that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interaction with the environment by noticing their relations with and across space and place.[76] As an intellectual discipline, geography (Q1071) is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography (Q52107) and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

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AfrikaEdit

 
Africa

Africa (Q15) is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (Q5107). At about 30.3 million km² (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers six per cent of Earth (Q2)'s total surface area and 20.4 per cent of its total land area. With 1.1 billion people as of 2013, it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (Q4918) to the north, both the Suez Canal (Q899) and the Red Sea (Q23406) along the Sinai Peninsula (Q36755) to the northeast, the Indian Ocean (Q1239) to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean (Q97) to the west. The continent includes Madagascar (Q1019) and various archipelago (Q33837). It contains 54 fully recognized sovereign state (Q3624078) (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa. Africa also varies greatly with regard to environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization (Q230533) in the 20th century.

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AsienEdit

 
Asia

Asia (Q48) is Earth (Q2)'s largest and most populous continent (Q5107), located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia (Q5401) with the continent of Europe (Q46). Asia covers an area of Template:Convert, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the world population (Q11188),[78] was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements as well as vast barely populated regions within the continent of 4.4 billion people. Asia has 49 recognized states, 5 partially recognized and unrecognized states and 6 dependent territories and other territories.

Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity (Q486761)—may actually have more to do with human geography (Q12831143) than physical geography (Q52107).[79] Asia varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. It also has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East (Q7204), temperate areas in the east and the extremely continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia (Q5428).

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EuropaEdit

 
Europe

Europe (Q46) is a continent (Q5107) that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia (Q5401). Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean (Q788) to the north, the Atlantic Ocean (Q97) to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea (Q4918) to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them; Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains (Q5477), the Ural River (Q80240), the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits (Q1051401).

Europe, in particular Ancient Greece (Q11772), was the birthplace of western culture (Q478958). The fall of the Western Roman Empire (Q42834), during the Migration Period (Q131192), marked the end of ancient history (Q41493) and the beginning of an era known as the Middle Ages (Q12554). Renaissance (Q4692) humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern history (Q3281534). From the Age of Discovery (Q133641) onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas (Q828), most of Africa (Q15), Oceania (Q538), and the majority of Asia.

Europe has 50 recognised states, 6 partially recognised states, 6 dependent territories and 2 special areas of internal sovereignty.

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NordamerikaEdit

 
North America

North America (Q49) is a continent (Q5107) entirely within the Northern Hemisphere (Q39061) and almost all within the Western Hemisphere (Q181982). It can also be considered a northern subcontinent (Q855697) of the Americas (Q828). It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean (Q788), to the east by the Atlantic Ocean (Q97), to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean (Q98), and to the southeast by South America (Q18) and the Caribbean Sea (Q1247).

North America has 23 sovereign states, 11 dependent territories and 16 other areas.

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SüdamerikaEdit

 
South America

South America (Q18) is a continent (Q5107) located in the Western Hemisphere (Q181982), mostly in the Southern Hemisphere (Q41228), with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere (Q39061). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean (Q98) and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean (Q97); North America (Q49) and the Caribbean Sea (Q1247) lie to the northwest.

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes (Q5456) mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and large lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco (Q131792), and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics (Q42530).

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states commonly reflect Western traditions.

South America has 13 sovereign states, 2 dependent territories and 1 integral territories of states outside of South America.

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OzeanienEdit

[[File:Oceania (orthographic projection).svg|thumb|right|200px|Oceania]] Oceania (Q538) is a geographic region (Q82794) centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun (Q980235). The history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia. The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania.

Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from its three subregion (Q7631958) of Melanesia (Q37394), Micronesia (Q3359409), and Polynesia (Q35942) to, more broadly, the entire insular region between Southeast Asia (Q11708) and the Americas (Q828), including Australasia (Q45256) and the Malay Archipelago (Q208643).

Oceania has 14 sovereign states, 2 states not members of the United Nations and 26 other territories.

Template:Main {{see also|Template:Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Oceanian countries|Template:Articles on second-level administrative divisions of Oceanian countries}}

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AntarktikaEdit

 
Antarctica

Antarctica (Q51) is Earth (Q2)'s southernmost continent (Q5107). It contains the geographic South Pole (Q933) and is situated in the Antarctic (Q1555938) region of the Southern Hemisphere (Q41228), almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle (Q182657), and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean (Q7354). Template:Main


Physische GeografieEdit

physical geography (Q52107) is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

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GeschichteEdit

history (Q309) (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. See also outline of history (Q7112655).

GLAMEdit

GLAM ist ein Akronym für "Galleries, libraries, archives, and museums", wobei auch andere Versionen, wie LAM, welches sich nur libraries, archives, and museums bezieht. More generally, GLAMs sind öffentliche, von der Öffentlichkeit Finanzierte Institutionen, cultural heritage (Q210272) Materialien sammeln.

  • An archives (Q166118) is an accumulation of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization.
  • A library (Q7075) is an organized collection of information resources made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.
  • A museum (Q33506) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.

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WissenschaftEdit

Template:Main science (Q336) – systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired. The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia" meaning knowledge (Q9081).

AstronomieEdit

astronomy (Q333) is a natural science (Q7991) that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as star (Q523), planet (Q634), comet (Q3559), nebula (Q42372), star cluster (Q168845) and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (Q3230) (such as the cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics (Q413), chemistry (Q2329), meteorology (Q25261), and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe.

space exploration (Q180046) is the Discovery (Q211051) and exploration (Q6502154) of outer space (Q4169) by means of space technology (Q211485). Physical exploration (Q6502154) of space is conducted both by human spaceflight (Q752783) and by robotic spacecraft (Q1378139).

Template:Main Template:Category see also

BiologieEdit

biology (Q420) is a natural science (Q7991) concerned with the study of life (Q3) and living organism (Q7239), including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. See also Category:Biology lists.

Chemie und PhysikEdit

chemistry (Q2329) is the science (Q336) of matter (Q35758), especially its chemical reaction (Q36534), but also its composition, structure and properties. See also Category:Chemistry lists.

physics (Q413) is a natural science (Q7991) that involves the study of matter (Q35758). See also Index of physics articles (Q386115), outline of physics (Q2427913) and Category:Physics-related lists.

HealthEdit

health (Q12147) is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In human (Q5), it is the general condition of a person (Q215627)'s mind and body, usually meaning to be free from disease (Q12136), injury (Q193078) or pain (Q81938). See also Category:Health-related lists.

Krankenhäuser werden hier gezählt #Architecture.

MathematikEdit

mathematics (Q395) (from Greek μάθημα máthēma "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of quantity (Q309314), space (Q107), structure (Q6671777), and change. See also outline of mathematics (Q3610632) and list of mathematics topics (Q3240104).

Planetary scienceEdit

Earth and planetary science (Q104499) are the sciences that study the material and dynamics of Earth and other celestial bodies.

meteorology (Q25261) is the interdisciplinarity (Q849359) scientific study of the atmosphere (Q8104). See also Index of meteorology articles (Q3254425).

GesellschaftEdit

A society (Q8425) is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. See also index of sociology articles (Q2975338) and Category:Society-related lists.

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TechnologieEdit

technology (Q11016) is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tool (Q39546), machine (Q11019), techniques, craft (Q2207288), system (Q58778), methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. See also Category:Technology-related lists.

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