Wikidata: Glossario

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Elements of a statement, from item Q42

Wikidata es un base de cognoscentia que omnes pote rediger. Ante que tu initia es un bon idea familiarisar se con le Glossario de Wikidata. Per iste via, le redactores pote "parlar le mesme lingua". Nos spera que isto adjutara a meliorar le discussiones e le communicationes inter le redactores.

Alias (alsi alsi note como) es un nomine alternative pro un articulo o un proprietate. Le nomine usual o plus importante es le label. Le aliases adjuta le gente a trovar un elemento mesmo si illes non cerca con un label. Per exemplo, le item Q2 ha le label “Terra” e aliases tal como “Tellus” e “Planeta Blau”.
Article placeholder is an extension to display stub articles and to start Wikipedia articles based on a view of Wikidata items. See mw:Extension:ArticlePlaceholder.
• Badges es un sorta de marcator attaccate a un sitelink, le qual poterea identificar, per exemplo, que le articulo es un "articulo characteristic" sur un site specific. Illos non describe le entitate externe sed le pagina sur le sito specific.
Category item, template item and module item are Wikidata items with sitelinks to (Wikipedia) categories, templates or modules, respectively. This is their main (sometimes only) purpose. When the last sitelink is deleted, these items are generally deleted (see Wikidata:Database reports/to delete).
Claim is a piece of data about the entity on the page the claim appears. A claim consists of a property (such as location (P276)) and either a value (e.g., Germany (Q183)) or one of the special cases "no value" and "unknown value". A claim can have qualifiers, such as temporal qualifiers saying that the claim is valid within a specific time frame. Compared to triples in the RDF data model, a claim uses a property to express the predicate of a triplet and a value to express the object of a triplet. Claims form part of statements on item pages, where they can be augmented with references and ranks; they can also occur on non-item data pages.
Commons (or Wikimedia Commons) is a Wikimedia project to store images, audio, video and other files. Wikibase includes three different datatypes to link from Wikidata to media files, geographic shapes and tabular data. Commons is adding statements to files as mediaentities.
Completeness is an assessment of available data with a measure for coverage. At Wikidata the presence of an item or statement does not imply that all similar items or statements are present. Wikibase does not include any completeness indicator. Quantity properties can be used to compare with available statements or items. Sample: the item about states of the USA has a statement with quantity 50. One can compare that with the count of uses of the item. A few tools attempt to measure completeness. To some extent, property suggester and suggestion constraints indicate elements missing to complete items.
Complex constraint (or custom constraint) is a constraint defined by a freely chosen SPARQL query in a template on a property talk page.
Template:Complex constraint
Conflation is a type of error, usually on an item, where aspects of several distinct concepts are mixed together. For example, an item with the date of birth of one person and the occupation of another person with the same name.
Help:Conflation of two people
Constraint is a rule for how a particular property should be used. For instance most identifiers should have only one value, so there is a single value constraint on them. A special kind are called complex constraints.
Constraint report can refer to a series of periodically updated pages for each property based on constraints or a special page for an individual item or other entity.
Cradle is an editing tool to create new Wikidata items based on a form with predefined properties and values.
Datatype (or propertyType) is an attribute of a property specifying the type and shape of the value in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype, which usually can not be changed. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. Data types can only be defined by developers; the development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes. Data type does not directly specify how values are stored internally; this is specified by value type.
Help:Data type
Date (or time or timeValue) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter dates in different precisions and enables date calculations in queries. Hour or minute precision isn't supported. The Wikidata property for the date of foundation has such values.
Description is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or Wikidata in general, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is strictly enforced. If your contribution does not meet this requirement you cannot save the change. It's a type of term.
Disambiguation item is a Wikidata item with sitelinks to disambiguation pages. This is its only purpose. Generally, it has a claim with instance of (P31)=Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410).
Wikidata:WikiProject Disambiguation pages
Duplicate is an entity, generally an item, about the same concept as another entity/item. Duplicates are usually merged creating a redirecting entity. Special types of duplicates are temporary duplicates, permanent duplicates, and true duplicates.
Editing interface is a view that allows to add or modify data. These views are the default view, the Commons structured data interface, Wikidata bridge, and a series of api-based tools, notably QuickStatements, Cradle, PetScan, OpenRefine or the pyBot framework.

• Entitate (in le messages de interfacie del usator de Wikidata nominate alicun vices data set) es le datos contente in un pagina de Wikidata, que pote esser sia un elemento (in le spatio del nomines principal), o un proprietate (in le spatio del nomines del proprietates), sia un requesta (in le spatio del nomines del requestas). Cata entitate es identificate univocamente per un ID de identitate, le qual es un numero con un prefixo, per exemplo initiante per Q e P pro le proprietate. Un entitate es identificate alsi per un combination unic de etiquetta e description in cata lingua. Le entitate pote esser etiam assignate un gruppo de aliases alternative multilingual. Cata entitate ha etiam un URI dereferentiabile que seque le modello con le ID ID de identitate.

Other extensions may define new types of entities. For example:

Entity selector allows to pick an entity from a selection generated after typing part of its name. This is based on label and aliases. Usually the description is displayed. Sample: type "human" to pick Q1156970 from "human (Q5) common name of Homo sapiens", "humanity (Q1156970) total world population of human", etc. This is different from the Property Suggester.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
EntitySchema is a special type of Wikidata page containing a document in ShEx format, and related metadata. Although it may have labels, descriptions and aliases similar to items, it is not a type of entity, nor powered by Wikibase. Entities may be validated against an EntitySchema using a tool.
External identifier Some properties have values that are strings used in the databases of external organisations. They uniquely identify an item (although the uniqueness is not enforced by software, but controlled by constraint). For example, an ISBN for a book or the unique part of the URL of a movie or an actor in the Internet Movie Database.
Federation query is a query through a service available on Query Server allowing to access databases other than Wikidata.
Wikidata:SPARQL federation input
Form refers to specific strings of characters that occur in the different grammatical contexts for a lexeme. Forms are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "F" and a number. Forms may have statements just as other entities do; they are also assigned "grammatical features" such as "plural" for Form L1298-F2 ("forms").
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
Historic information is included by qualifying it with a date. If information is no longer current, date qualifiers are added instead of statements overwritten. Historic information is different from incorrect information
Human (or instance of human) is a Wikidata item about a person or an individual. It has a claim with instance of (P31)=human (Q5).
Incorrect information is a claim supported by a reference, but generally considered invalid or inaccurate. While Wikipedia generally excludes such information, Wikidata's deprecated rank allows to flag such statements. This avoids that it's deleted and erroneously re-added as valid information. Incorrect information is different from historic information
Instance, subclass or part (also class or type) are used on Wikidata to refer to Property:P31, Property:P279, Property:P527 and few related properties, their values, or items using them.
Help:Basic membership properties
• Elemento (in alcun linguas rendite in parolas pro subjecto, objecto o elemento in le interface del usator) es un pagina in le spatio del nomines principal de Wikidata, que representa un topic concepto o subjecto del vita-real. Le elementos es identificate per un ID con un prefixo, o per un ID con un prefixo, o per un Ligamine a sitos a un pagina externe, o per un combination unic de etiquetta e description multilingual. Le elementos pote alsi haber aliases pro facilitar le lookup. Le principal parte de datos de un elemento es le lista del declarationes re le elemento. Un elemento pote esser viste como le parte subjecto de un tripletto in le datos ligate.
Item identifier: see QID below.
Label (also name) is the main name given to identify an entity (i.e. an item or a property). E.g.: the item with the item identifier Q7378 has the English label “elephant”. Every entity has exactly one label in a given human language. Labels do not need to be unique. Descriptions and aliases are used to distinguish between entities with the same label. Wikidata pages do not have labels, but titles. It's a type of term.
Lag or database lag at Wikidata is a delay in the update of data on other projects or Query Server.
Language attributes are the language-specific labels, aliases and descriptions that are assigned to items, properties and queries. These are human-readable text to improve understanding of the scope of the item; for example the specific type of real world entity. If they are missing some of them can be replaced by strings from alternate languages, following the language fallback chains.
Language code is an identifier for the language of a label, description, alias, or monolingual text value. The language codes for label, description, alias are shared with other Wikimedia projects. More codes for the monolingual text are defined specifically for Wikidata. Lexemes use some of these and/or additional codes or items to identify the language in lemma, glos, form. A language code is also assigned to sitelinks. Codes are mostly IETF language tag-based.
Help:Monolingual text languages
Language fallbacks (also language chains) are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
Lexeme is an entity of Lexicographical data. It contains sense and form sub-entities, but no sitelinks. Instead of a label, alias and description, lexeme entities have one or several lemma, a language and a lexical category.
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
LID (or L number) The identifier for a lexeme entity in Wikidata, comprising the letter "L" followed by one or more digits.
Listeria (or Wikidata list) is a tool to create to view data from Wikidata in list form at Wikimedia projects. Data is periodically updated by bot.
Template:Wikidata list
• Spatio principal Isto es le spatio de nomine ubi omne le elementos es locate. Illo es distinguite per su absentia de un prefixo.
MediaWiki es le software sur le qual es basate omne le projectos Wikimedia. Pois que le software es libere, il ha milles de installationes per differente entitates; vide Cosa es MediaWiki pro plus.
MediaInfo is a type of entity used to describe files. It's activated on Wikimedia Commons.
Metapaginas Iste es tote le paginas que non es entitates, i.e. non pertinente al spatios de nomines del datos. Le metapaginas de Wikidata contine contento non structurate representate per un codice MediaWiki conventional, e possibilemente etiam futur codices de Wikidata de inclusion al latere de clientes. Examplos es le paginas de desription, le paginas de categoria, le paginas de projecto (in le spatio de nomine de Wikidata) e le paginas de adjuta (in le spatio de nomine del adjuta). Le metapaginas comprende etiam le contento e le datos generate automaticamente per le software MediaWiki (per exemplo, le historia del modificationes de un pagina, o le paginas special).
Name item is a Wikidata item about a given name or a family name. Such items are used as values for given name (P735) or family name (P734) and can include additional information and sitelinks.
Wikidata:WikiProject Names
• Spatio de nomines - Spatio de nomines de Mediawiki namespace (Q18889113) ( A division physic del paginas in MediaWiki pro gruppar illas in accordo al uso general o qualque comportamento adjunctive. Exemplos es le spatios de nomines pro le categorias, le files, le usatores, e in le caso de Wikidata, le tres spatios de nomines del datos: le elementos (in le spatio de nomines principal), le proprietates e le recercas. Vide le lista del spatios de nomines.
• Pagina Un pagina web interne o externe con un titulo unic, per exemplo un articulo in le spatio de nomine principal de Wikipedia o un elemento in le spatio de nomine principal de Wikipedia. In Wikidata, le termino "pagina" pote referer se a un elemento o proprietate pagina in le spatios de nomines del datos, un meta pagina in altere spatios de nomines o un pagina ligate externe sur Wikipedia o altere sitosw de Wikimedia o un a;tere sito externe, referite per un ligamine a sitos. Le paginas in le spatio de nomines principal de Wikidata se refere al elementos, e un pagina pote continer sol un elemento.
Project is a term often used in the Wikimedia movement to refer to a Wikimedia wiki. In Wikidata, the term usually refers to Wikidata itself.
• Proprietate (rendite in alcun linguas a attributo) es le descriptor pro un valor de dato, o un altere relation o composite o possibilemente mancante valor, sed non le mesme valor del datos o valor. Cata declaration verso un pagina de un elemento liga a un proprietate, e assigna al proprietate uno o plus valores, o qualque altere relation o composite o possibilemente mancante valor. Le Proprietate es immagazinate sur un pagina in le Spatio del nomines del Proprietate, e include un declaration del Typo de dato pro le Valores del proprietates. Comparate al Datos ligate, le Proprietate representa il predicato de un tripletto.
Property suggester provides a preselection of properties when adding statements to Wikidata items. These are based on the frequency of the properties on similar items. Sample: on an item with instance of (P31)=human (Q5) only, suggestions could be sex or gender (P21), occupation (P106), date of birth (P569). These may or may not be appropriate for the specific item. This is different from entity selector and suggestion constraints.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
Order of statements is generally determined by the view being used and not significant. Many views display data retrieved or entered first before other. Some views sort or allow to sort statements based on qualifier value, statement value, property, or datatype.
QID (or Q number) is the unique identifier of a data item on Wikidata, comprising the letter "Q" followed by one or more digits. It is used to help people and machines understand the difference between items with the same or similar names e.g there are several places in the world called London and many people called James Smith. This number appears next to the name at the top of each Wikidata item.
Qualifier is a part of the claim that says something about the specific claim, often in a descriptive way. A qualifier might be a term according to a specific vocabulary but can also be a variant descriptive phrase (whether those terms or phrases are free text or part of some vocabulary would probably be up to the Wikidata community).
Quantity (incorrectly number) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter integers or decimal numbers. Optionally a unit or a bound can be included. The Wikidata property for population has such values. Numeric identifiers are not quantities, but external identifiers.
Help:Data type#Quantity
• Requesta (characteristica futur) es un recerca prefixate a transverso del elementos. Un Requesta es le descriptor pro un recerca prefixate, ma non le occurrentias generate per le cerca mesme. Un Requesta pote esser executate pro acquirer le resultatos del cerca, que pote esser utile pro un generation e translation automatic del articulos del lista. Vider Wikidata:Lists task force (Wikidata phase III). Cata Requesta es un Entitate e describite e definite sur su proprie pagina, e ha su proprie identificator prefixate.
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
multe projectos Wikimedia existe in differente versiones localisate, sed non Wikidata. Wikidata es multilingual, isto significa que omne le partes del Interfacie del Usator e etiam omne le paginas del datos contente pote esser rendite e usate in multe linguas differente. Le usatores pote determinar lor linguas favorite . Wikidata es destinate a tractar omne le linguas al mesme modo e a interconnecter le cognoscentia de multe linguas permittente de usar etiam in omne le altere linguas le contento de datos contribuite in un lingua. Le usatores pote render omne le paginas in le differente linguas local e dunque affinar le usabilitate passo a passo.
Rank is a quality factor used for simple selection/filtering in cases where there are several statements for a given property. In such cases, you may want to indicate which statement is more important or relevant than other statements. By default, a statement has the rank "normal", but you can change this to either "preferred" or "deprecated". "deprecated" rank can be used for statements supported by a reference, but considered incorrect.
Redirecting entity (or redirect) is an item or a lexeme that redirects to another item or lexeme (target). As in many uses these would need to be queried specifically, a bot usually replaces redirects used as values with their target.
A Reference (or source) is used to point to a specific resource that supports a claim in Wikidata. A reference can be a link to a URL or an item; for example, an item about a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a claim is correct, but only whether the claim appears in a reference. A claim together with the reference form a statement. "Source" is sometimes used to describe a reference, sometimes to describe the origin of a statement.
Repurposing is changing the definition or scope of an entity, in general an item, by editing its statements, label and/or description. Generally to be avoided.
Sandbox or sandbox items are series of items, properties and other entities at Wikidata to test features within the Wikidata live database. Samples: item Q4115189, Property:P369, EntitySchema:E123, Lexeme:L123.
Sense refers to a specific meaning for a lexeme. Senses are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "S" and a number. Senses may have statements just as other entities do. They also allow a "gloss": a free-form description of the meaning (one per language).
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
• Sito es un referentia a un sito web externe in general, sed in sitelinks illo se refere a wikies registrate specific, per exemplo un version de lingua de Wikipedia. Ille sitos es referite per le identificator global de sitos o in breve siteid, technicamente correspondente al DBnamedel wiki. per exemplo le siteid de Wikipedia Latin es lawiki. Cata pagina externe pote haber sol un ligamine registrate in Wikidata e un elemento pote sol haber un ligamine con cata sito externe.
• Le Ligamine a sitos (in le Interfacie del Usator nominate Lista del paginas ligate a iste elemento) es un identification de unpagina ligate a un altere sito. Illo consiste de un identificator de sito e un titulo, e es immagazinate in individual elementos in Wikidata. Illos es usate ambe pro identificar un elemento ex un sito externe, e como un magazin central de (interlinguas) ligamines de interwiki. Vide Adjuta:Sitelinks.
Sitelinks between Wiktionary editions are generally not provided through Wikidata, but another function.
Snak is a technical term of Wikibase software which data users are most likely to encounter when accessing Wikidata through the MediaWiki API. It refers to the combination of a property and either a value or one of the special cases "no value" and "unknown value". Snaks can be found in claims (then they are called main snaks) or in qualifiers as part of statements (then they are called qualifier snaks). E.g., in the statement "Emma Watson was a cast member of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in the role of Hermione Granger" there is a main snak "was a cast member of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" and a qualifier snak "in the role of Hermione Granger".
A Statement is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by references (giving the source for the claim) and a rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property; "normal" by default). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. The term "statement" is often used interchangeably with "claim", but technically it only becomes a statement once at least one reference has been added.
String (also character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.
Subject, predicate and object are terms sometimes used to describe a claim when viewing entity, property and value as a triple.
Suggestion constraint is a status of a property constraint that provides suggestions of additional improvements. This can be statements with other properties to be added to the item.
Term (or "termbox") is a part of entity, includes label, description and alias. Terms may only be plain text (i.e. not containing any wiki markup).
Titulo Isto es le nomine de un Pagina ligate externe (note qual Sitelink-title), le nomine de un meta page, o le Entity ID de un pagina de entity. Si le pagina non pertine al spatio de nomine principal, le titulo include le nomine del spatio de nomine qual prefixo.
Unit is a Wikidata item used with a quantity-value. Frequently used units are metre or EUR, but any item could be used as unit. If the unit includes a conversion to SI unit (P2370)-statement, quantities with the unit are normalized based on that. See mw:Wikibase/Indexing/RDF Dump Format#Normalized values.
Value (also datavalue) is the actual piece of information stored within a claim. Wikidata has a range of allowed datatypes (such as "item", "mathematical expression", "quantity"). The datatype needed for any given claim is determined by the property used (e.g. the value in a "place of birth" claim must be an "item"). Instead of a normal value, you can also use one of the special cases "unknown value" or "no value" in a claim.
Value type is the way values are stored internally. Each data type corresponds to one value type. For example, although external identifier, Commons media and mathematical expression are different datatypes, they all use the "string" value type. Values for some data types contain multiple parts with different value types. For example, a quantity contains four parts: "amount", "unit", "upperbound" and "lowerbound", the last two being optional. Unit is a URL which points to a Wikidata item; the other three parts are numbers in string (not floating-point number).
View is a way data can be visualized or accessed. Besides the default view, Wikibase offers views for mobile devices, rdf, json. Data can be accessed with api. Data on Wikidata is mirrored on Wikidata Query Server offering various result views. Some of the views are editing views, others not. Tools and extensions that provide customs views are Reasonator, Article Placeholder, Listeria.
Wikidata:Data access
Wikidata:How to use data on Wikimedia projects
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help/Result Views
Wikibase es le software detra Wikidata. Illo consiste de tres Extensiones MediaWiki: Wikibase, Cliente Wikibase, e WikibaseLib:
    1. le Extension Wikibase (pro le server Wikidata, saepe appellate repository o solmente repo) permitte a un installation MediaWiki dedicate de colliger e mantener le datos structurate e es usate in le sito de Wikidata.
    2. Le Extension Cliente de Wikibase (often called just client) habilita le installationes de MediaWiki qual le Wikipedias a querer e monstrar le datos ex un server de Wikidata sur su paginas, e es in uso sur le Wikipedias, in linguas differente, e in alicun altere sitos soror.
    3. The Extension WikibaseLib ha librarias commun pro ambe le major extensiones.
Wikidata es un projecto de Wikimedia que exeque un instantia de MediaWiki con le Extensiones Wikibase. Illo permitte al Redactores de Wikidata de inserer le datos e leger le paginas.
Wikidata Query Service (or WDQS) is the official service for querying Wikidata using the SPARQL query language.
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
Wikimedia es le nomine de un movimento (vide pro le detalios) que provide, per le projectos de Wikimedia, cognoscentia libere al publico.
Le Projectos de Wikimedia (vide pro le detalios) es libere wikis con un proposito specific, usualmente dividite in plure wikis individual pro cata lingua, ut in Wikipedia. Wikidata es un projecto multilingual de Wikimedia. Il ha in total circa 800 wikis differente pro Wikimedia. Actualmente, sol le projectos de Wikimedia pote esser ligate a Wikidata.

Related Glossaries