위키데이터:용어집

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Elements of a statement, from item Q42

용어집은 위키데이터의 중요한 개념들을 정의하고, 상세한 설명을 다는 공간입니다. 위키데이터의 전반적인 소개에 대해서는 위키데이터:소개 문서를 참고해 주시고, 용어집 작성법과 개선법에 대해서는 용어집 가이드라인을 참고해 주세요.

용어집
Also known as(alias 또는 also known as)이란 각 항목의 별칭이나 별명을 뜻합니다. 가장 대표적으로 알려져 있는 이름은 레이블이라고 부릅니다. 검색창에서 레이블 대신 Also known as을 이용해서 항목을 검색할 수 있습니다. 다른 이름은 필요한 만큼 추가해서 만들 수 있습니다.
Help:Aliases
Article placeholder is an extension to display stub articles and to start Wikipedia articles based on a view of Wikidata items. See mw:Extension:ArticlePlaceholder.
배지(badge)는 사이트링크에 붙일 수 있는 표식의 일종입니다. 어떤 문서가 특정 사이트에서 "알찬 글"인지 등을 알아볼 수 있도록 하는 역할을 합니다.
Help:Badges
Category item, template item and module item are Wikidata items with sitelinks to (Wikipedia) categories, templates or modules, respectively. This is their main (sometimes only) purpose. When the last sitelink is deleted, these items are generally deleted (see Wikidata:Database reports/to delete).
Claim is a piece of data about the entity on the page the claim appears. A claim consists of a property (such as location (P276)) and either a value (e.g., Germany (Q183)) or one of the special cases "no value" and "unknown value". A claim can have qualifiers, such as temporal qualifiers saying that the claim is valid within a specific time frame. Compared to triples in the RDF data model, a claim uses a property to express the predicate of a triplet and a value to express the object of a triplet. Claims form part of statements on item pages, where they can be augmented with references and ranks; they can also occur on non-item data pages.
Commons (or Wikimedia Commons) is a Wikimedia project to store images, audio, video and other files. Wikibase includes three different datatypes to link from Wikidata to media files, geographic shapes and tabular data. Commons is adding statements to files as mediaentities.
Completeness is an assessment of available data with a measure for coverage. At Wikidata the presence of an item or statement does not imply that all similar items or statements are present. Wikibase does not include any completeness indicator. Quantity properties can be used to compare with available statements or items. Sample: the item about states of the USA has a statement with quantity 50. One can compare that with the count of uses of the item. A few tools attempt to measure completeness. To some extent, property suggester and suggestion constraints indicate elements missing to complete items.
Complex constraint (or custom constraint) is a constraint defined by a freely chosen SPARQL query in a template on a property talk page.
Template:Complex constraint
Conflation is a type of error, usually on an item, where aspects of several distinct concepts are mixed together. For example, an item with the date of birth of one person and the occupation of another person with the same name.
Help:Conflation of two people
Constraint is a rule for how a particular property should be used. For instance most identifiers should have only one value, so there is a single value constraint on them. A special kind are called complex constraints.
Help:Constraints
Constraint report can refer to a series of periodically updated pages for each property based on constraints or a special page for an individual item or other entity.
Wikidata:Database_reports/Constraint_violations
Cradle is an editing tool to create new Wikidata items based on a form with predefined properties and values.
Wikidata:Cradle
Datatype (or propertyType) is an attribute of a property specifying the type and shape of the value in each claim. Each property is assigned a pre-defined datatype, which usually can not be changed. Not all values can be linked, as long as there are certain datatypes missing. Data types can only be defined by developers; the development of new datatypes is still in progress. See also Special:ListDatatypes for currently available datatypes. Data type does not directly specify how values are stored internally; this is specified by value type.
Help:Data type
Date (or time or timeValue) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter dates in different precisions and enables date calculations in queries. Hour or minute precision isn't supported. The Wikidata property for the date of foundation has such values.
Help:Dates
Description is a language-specific descriptive phrase for an item, property or query. It provides context for the label (for example, there are many items about places with the label "Cambridge"). The description therefore does not need to be unique, neither within a language or Wikidata in general, but it must be unique together with the label. Uniqueness for a combination of a label and a description is strictly enforced. If your contribution does not meet this requirement you cannot save the change. It's a type of term.
Help:Description
Disambiguation item is a Wikidata item with sitelinks to disambiguation pages. This is its only purpose. Generally, it has a claim with instance of (P31)=Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410).
Wikidata:WikiProject Disambiguation pages
Duplicate is an entity, generally an item, about the same concept as another entity/item. Duplicates are usually merged creating a redirecting entity. Special types of duplicates are temporary duplicates, permanent duplicates, and true duplicates.
Editing interface is a view that allows to add or modify data. These views are the default view, the Commons structured data interface, Wikidata bridge, and a series of api-based tools, notably QuickStatements, Cradle, PetScan, OpenRefine or the pyBot framework.

개체(Entity) ([$1 Wikidata user interface messages]에서는 가끔 데이터 셋이라고 부름)는 위키데이터 문서의 데이터 내용으로, 항목(주 이름공간에서)을 가리킬 수도, property(속성 이름공간에서) 또는 query(쿼리 이름공간에서)를 가리킬 수도 있습니다. 모든 개체는 entity ID에 의해 유일하게 구별됩니다. 이는 고정된 숫자이며, 항목에는 Q로 시작하고 속성에는 P로 시작합니다. 개체는 또한 각 언어마다 레이블설명 의 유일한 조합에 의해 구별되기도 합니다. 하나의 개체는 여러 언어에서 여러 다른 이름들을 가지고 있을 수 있습니다. 또한 각각의 개체는 http://www.wikidata.org/entity/ID 의 규칙을 가지는 dereferenceable URI를 가지고 있습니다.

Other extensions may define new types of entities. For example:

Entity selector allows to pick an entity from a selection generated after typing part of its name. This is based on label and aliases. Usually the description is displayed. Sample: type "human" to pick Q1156970 from "human (Q5) common name of Homo sapiens", "humanity (Q1156970) total world population of human", etc. This is different from the Property Suggester.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
EntitySchema is a special type of Wikidata page containing a document in ShEx format, and related metadata. Although it may have labels, descriptions and aliases similar to items, it is not a type of entity, nor powered by Wikibase. Entities may be validated against an EntitySchema using a tool.
External identifier Some properties have values that are strings used in the databases of external organisations. They uniquely identify an item (although the uniqueness is not enforced by software, but controlled by constraint). For example, an ISBN for a book or the unique part of the URL of a movie or an actor in the Internet Movie Database.
Federation query is a query through a service available on Query Server allowing to access databases other than Wikidata.
Wikidata:SPARQL federation input
Form refers to specific strings of characters that occur in the different grammatical contexts for a lexeme. Forms are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "F" and a number. Forms may have statements just as other entities do; they are also assigned "grammatical features" such as "plural" for Form L1298-F2 ("forms").
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
Historic information is included by qualifying it with a date. If information is no longer current, date qualifiers are added instead of statements overwritten. Historic information is different from incorrect information
Human (or instance of human) is a Wikidata item about a person or an individual. It has a claim with instance of (P31)=human (Q5).
Incorrect information is a claim supported by a reference, but generally considered invalid or inaccurate. While Wikipedia generally excludes such information, Wikidata's deprecated rank allows to flag such statements. This avoids that it's deleted and erroneously re-added as valid information. Incorrect information is different from historic information
Instance, subclass or part (also class or type) are used on Wikidata to refer to Property:P31, Property:P279, Property:P527 and few related properties, their values, or items using them.
Help:Basic membership properties
항목(Item)(혹은 주제)은 위키데이터의 문서가 설명하고 있는 대상을 말합니다. 항목은 레이블설명(데이터 모델을 참고하세요.), 그리고 다언어판 위키피디아와 연결되어 있는 인터위키들로 특정화됩니다. 항목은 개체와는 다른 개념이며, 실제 세계의 개체들의 데이터의 모음이 바로 항목입니다.

항목(Item) (몇몇 언어에서는 사용자 인터페이스에서 "subject", "object" 또는 "element"로 번역됨) 은 현실세계의 물체, 개념, 사건을 나타내며 그에 대한 정보와 함께 위키데이터에서 식별자로써 사용됩니다. 각각의 항목은 위키데이터 주 이름공간에서 해당하는 위키문서를 가지고 있습니다. 항목들은 접두사가 붙어있는 id(Q5 처럼)로 구분되거나, 외무 문서에 연결된 사이트링크에 의해 구분되거나, 각 언어마다 레이블설명의 유일한 조합에 의해 구별됩니다. 또한 항목들은 찾기 쉽도록 별칭들을 가지고 있습니다. 항목의 주된 정보는 항목에 대한 상태의 목록입니다. 하나의 항목은 연결된 데이터에서 트리블렛의 subject-part로써 보여질 수 있습니다.
Help:Items

Item identifier: see QID below.
레이블(Label)은 "이름"이라고도 불리며(제목과 혼동해서는 안됩니다), 항목, 속성 and 쿼리에 사용되는 언어 특화적인 이름입니다. 이것은 보통 엔트리에 알려져있는 중요한 이름이거나, 프로젝트에서 내부적으로 가장 일반적이거나 이해하기 쉬운 문장으로 표현됩니다. 위키데이터에서 위키백과의 제목과 같은 역할을 하며 엔트리를 구분하기 위한 주된 의미로 사용됩니다. 항목들에 있어서, 전체적인 프로젝트 또는 언어에서 유일해질 필요는 없으나, 설명과 함께 묶음으로써는 유일해야 합니다. 속성들에 있어서, 각각의 언어에서 레이블은 유일해질 필요가 있습니다. 레이블과 설명의 조합에 의한 유일성은 수정이 저장되기 전에 충족되어야 하는 제약을 가지고 있으며, 추후에 삭제가 될지라도 주의해야 합니다. Labels should use the language specific conventions for capitalization of proper names and phrases as seems fit for the specific entry. In listings the label will be followed by the description so they join as a single list entry.
Help:Labels
Lag or database lag at Wikidata is a delay in the update of data on other projects or Query Server.
Language attributes are the language-specific labels, aliases and descriptions that are assigned to items, properties and queries. These are human-readable text to improve understanding of the scope of the item; for example the specific type of real world entity. If they are missing some of them can be replaced by strings from alternate languages, following the language fallback chains.
Language code is an identifier for the language of a label, description, alias, or monolingual text value. The language codes for label, description, alias are shared with other Wikimedia projects. More codes for the monolingual text are defined specifically for Wikidata. Lexemes use some of these and/or additional codes or items to identify the language in lemma, glos, form. A language code is also assigned to sitelinks. Codes are mostly IETF language tag-based.
Help:Monolingual text languages
Language fallbacks (also language chains) are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
Lexeme is an entity of Lexicographical data. It contains sense and form sub-entities, but no sitelinks. Instead of a label, alias and description, lexeme entities have one or several lemma, a language and a lexical category.
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
LID (or L number) The identifier for a lexeme entity in Wikidata, comprising the letter "L" followed by one or more digits.
Listeria (or Wikidata list) is a tool to create to view data from Wikidata in list form at Wikimedia projects. Data is periodically updated by bot.
Template:Wikidata list
주된 이름공간(Mainspace)은 이름공간의 일종입니다. 다른 이름공간과는 달리 이 이름공간에는 문서명 앞에 이름공간 명과 쌍점이 붙지 않습니다. 위키데이터에서는 항목을 위한 이름공간으로 사용하고 있습니다.
Help:Namespaces
미디어위키(MediaWiki)는 위키백과 같은 위키미디어 프로젝트들이나 다른 위키를 굴러가게 해 주는 소프트웨어입니다. 그리고 미디어위키에 위키데이터를 설치하면 위키베이스 확장 기능을 이용할 수 있게 됩니다. 미디어위키란 무엇인가 문서를 참고해 보세요.
MediaInfo is a type of entity used to describe files. It's activated on Wikimedia Commons.
Meta pages These are all pages that are not entities, i.e. do not belong to the data namespaces. Wikidata meta pages contain unstructured content represented by conventional MediaWiki code, and perhaps also future Wikidata client side inclusion code. Examples are talk pages, category pages, project pages (in the Wikidata namespace) and help pages (in the help namespace). Meta pages also comprise content and data automatically generated by the MediaWiki software (for example, the edit history of a page, or special pages).
Name item is a Wikidata item about a given name or a family name. Such items are used as values for given name (P735) or family name (P734) and can include additional information and sitelinks.
Wikidata:WikiProject Names
이름공간(Namespace)은 전체적인 사용 방식에 따라 나눈 미디어위키 문서들의 범주입니다. 이름공간이 다른 문서는 제각기 다른 특성을 가집니다. 위키데이터에서 가장 중요한 이름공간(주된 이름공간)은 위키데이터 항목들을 위해 마련되어 있습니다. 이런 항목들의 URL은 Q 뒤에 숫자를 붙여 구분합니다. 예를 들어 Q7378 항목은 '코끼리'를 나타냅니다. '주된 이름공간'이 아닌 다른 이름공간 문서들은 문서명 앞에 이름공간 명과 쌍점이 붙습니다. 더 자세한 것은 Help:목차를 참고해 주세요.
Help:Namespaces
문서(Page) 위키백과의 일반 이름공간에 올라와 있는 "문서"나 위키데이터의 데이터 항목 이름공간에 있는 "항목"과 같이, 고유한 제목을 가진 내부 혹은 외부의 웹 페이지를 의미합니다. 위키데이터에서 "문서"라는 용어는 데이터 이름공간에 있는 항목이나 속성 문서, 다른 이름공간에 있는 메타 페이지나 위키백과와 다른 위키미디어 사이트, 또는 사이트 링크로 연결된 다른 외부 사이트에 있는 페이지를 가리킵니다. 위키데이터에서 일반 이름공간을 갖고 있는 문서들은 어떠한 항목에 관련되어 있으며, 한 문서는 단 하나의 항목만 담을 수 있습니다.
Project is a term often used in the Wikimedia movement to refer to a Wikimedia wiki. In Wikidata, the term usually refers to Wikidata itself.
Property (also attribute) describes the data value of a statement and can be thought of as a category of data, for example "color" for the data value "blue". Properties, when paired with values, form a statement in Wikidata. Properties are also used in qualifiers. Properties have their own pages on Wikidata and are connected to items, resulting in a linked data structure.
Help:Properties
Property suggester provides a preselection of properties when adding statements to Wikidata items. These are based on the frequency of the properties on similar items. Sample: on an item with instance of (P31)=human (Q5) only, suggestions could be sex or gender (P21), occupation (P106), date of birth (P569). These may or may not be appropriate for the specific item. This is different from entity selector and suggestion constraints.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
Order of statements is generally determined by the view being used and not significant. Many views display data retrieved or entered first before other. Some views sort or allow to sort statements based on qualifier value, statement value, property, or datatype.
QID (or Q number) is the unique identifier of a data item on Wikidata, comprising the letter "Q" followed by one or more digits. It is used to help people and machines understand the difference between items with the same or similar names e.g there are several places in the world called London and many people called James Smith. This number appears next to the name at the top of each Wikidata item.
Qualifier is a part of the claim that says something about the specific claim, often in a descriptive way. A qualifier might be a term according to a specific vocabulary but can also be a variant descriptive phrase (whether those terms or phrases are free text or part of some vocabulary would probably be up to the Wikidata community).
Help:Qualifiers
Quantity (incorrectly number) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter integers or decimal numbers. Optionally a unit or a bound can be included. The Wikidata property for population has such values. Numeric identifiers are not quantities, but external identifiers.
Help:Data type#Quantity
Query is a search across items in Wikidata and their associated data. Queries are usually executed on the Wikidata Query Service using the SPARQL query language.
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
QuickStatements (QS) is a third-party tool that can edit Wikidata items, based on a simple set of text commands. The tool can add and remove statements, labels, descriptions, and aliases; as well as add statements with optional qualifiers and sources.
Help:QuickStatements
Rank is a quality factor used for simple selection/filtering in cases where there are several statements for a given property. In such cases, you may want to indicate which statement is more important or relevant than other statements. By default, a statement has the rank "normal", but you can change this to either "preferred" or "deprecated". "deprecated" rank can be used for statements supported by a reference, but considered incorrect.
Help:Ranking
Redirecting entity (or redirect) is an item or a lexeme that redirects to another item or lexeme (target). As in many uses these would need to be queried specifically, a bot usually replaces redirects used as values with their target.
Help:Redirects
A Reference (or source) is used to point to a specific resource that supports a claim in Wikidata. A reference can be a link to a URL or an item; for example, an item about a book. Wikidata does not aim to answer the question of whether a claim is correct, but only whether the claim appears in a reference. A claim together with the reference form a statement. "Source" is sometimes used to describe a reference, sometimes to describe the origin of a statement.
Help:Sources
Repurposing is changing the definition or scope of an entity, in general an item, by editing its statements, label and/or description. Generally to be avoided.
Sandbox or sandbox items are series of items, properties and other entities at Wikidata to test features within the Wikidata live database. Samples: item Q4115189, Property:P369, EntitySchema:E123, Lexeme:L123.
Sense refers to a specific meaning for a lexeme. Senses are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "S" and a number. Senses may have statements just as other entities do. They also allow a "gloss": a free-form description of the meaning (one per language).
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
Site is a reference to an external website in general, but in sitelinks it refers to specific registered wikis, for example a Wikipedia language version. Those sites are referenced by global site identifiers or for short siteid, technically corresponding to the wiki's DBname. For example the Latin Wikipedia's siteid is lawiki. Each external page can have only one link registered in Wikidata and one item can only have one link to each external site.
사이트링크(Sitelink)는 다른 위키미디어 사이트, 예컨데 개별 언어 위키백과와 연결된 문서의 표시입니다. 사이트 식별자사이트 제목 (문서 제목)으로 이루어져 있으며, 위키데이터의 개별 항목에 있습니다. 외부 사이트에서 항목을 찾는데 쓰이고, 또한, 인터언어(인터위키) 링크의 중앙 보관소 역할도 합니다. 사이트링크는 알찬 글 등의 정보를 나타내는 배지가 추가될 수 있습니다. Help:사이트링크 문서를 참고해 보세요.

사이트링크 (사용자 인터페이스에서는 "해당 항목에 연결된 문서들의 목록") 은 다른 사이트에 있는 "연결된 문서"의 식별자입니다. 사이트링크는 사이트 식별자와 제목으로 구성되어 있고, 위키데이터에 각각의 항목들에 저장되어 있습니다. 이것들은 외부 사이트에서 항목을 찾는데 쓰이고, "인터위키" 링크들의 중앙 저장소로써 쓰기기도 합니다. Help:Sitelinks를 참고하세요.
Help:Sitelinks

Sitelinks between Wiktionary editions are generally not provided through Wikidata, but another function.
Wikidata:Wiktionary/Sitelinks
Snak is a technical term of Wikibase software which data users are most likely to encounter when accessing Wikidata through the MediaWiki API. It refers to the combination of a property and either a value or one of the special cases "no value" and "unknown value". Snaks can be found in claims (then they are called main snaks) or in qualifiers as part of statements (then they are called qualifier snaks). E.g., in the statement "Emma Watson was a cast member of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in the role of Hermione Granger" there is a main snak "was a cast member of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" and a qualifier snak "in the role of Hermione Granger".
A Statement is a piece of data about an item, recorded on the item's page. A statement consists of a claim (a property-value pair such as "Location: Germany", together with optional qualifiers), augmented by references (giving the source for the claim) and a rank (used to distinguish between several claims containing the same property; "normal" by default). Wikidata makes no assumptions about the correctness of statements, but merely collects and reports them with a reference to a source. The term "statement" is often used interchangeably with "claim", but technically it only becomes a statement once at least one reference has been added.
Help:Statements
String (also character string) is a general term for a sequence of freely chosen characters interpreted as text (e.g. "Hello") — as opposed to a value interpreted as a numerical value (3.14), a link to an item (e.g. [[Q1234]]) or a more complex datatype (the set {1,3,5,7} ). Wikidata will in addition to a string datatype support language specific texts; "monolingual-text" and "multilingual-text" as the value of a property.
Subject, predicate and object are terms sometimes used to describe a claim when viewing entity, property and value as a triple.
Suggestion constraint is a status of a property constraint that provides suggestions of additional improvements. This can be statements with other properties to be added to the item.
Term (or "termbox") is a part of entity, includes label, description and alias. Terms may only be plain text (i.e. not containing any wiki markup).
Title is the name of a page. All pages must have a unique title within a given wiki, as the title is included in the URL for the page. For example there can be only one page with the title "Douglas Adams" on English Wikipedia. In Wikidata, a title is either an entity identifier such as Q42, or it starts with a namespace prefix such as Help:. The page title is not to be confused with the label for a Wikidata item or property. Wikidata items are connected to pages on other Wikimedia wikis via sitelinks, which use the page's title to uniquely identify the resource.
Unit is a Wikidata item used with a quantity-value. Frequently used units are metre or EUR, but any item could be used as unit. If the unit includes a conversion to SI unit (P2370)-statement, quantities with the unit are normalized based on that. See mw:Wikibase/Indexing/RDF Dump Format#Normalized values.
Value (also datavalue) is the actual piece of information stored within a claim. Wikidata has a range of allowed datatypes (such as "item", "mathematical expression", "quantity"). The datatype needed for any given claim is determined by the property used (e.g. the value in a "place of birth" claim must be an "item"). Instead of a normal value, you can also use one of the special cases "unknown value" or "no value" in a claim.
Help:Statements
Value type is the way values are stored internally. Each data type corresponds to one value type. For example, although external identifier, Commons media and mathematical expression are different datatypes, they all use the "string" value type. Values for some data types contain multiple parts with different value types. For example, a quantity contains four parts: "amount", "unit", "upperbound" and "lowerbound", the last two being optional. Unit is a URL which points to a Wikidata item; the other three parts are numbers in string (not floating-point number).
View is a way data can be visualized or accessed. Besides the default view, Wikibase offers views for mobile devices, rdf, json. Data can be accessed with api. Data on Wikidata is mirrored on Wikidata Query Server offering various result views. Some of the views are editing views, others not. Tools and extensions that provide customs views are Reasonator, Article Placeholder, Listeria.
Wikidata:Data access
Wikidata:How to use data on Wikimedia projects
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help/Result Views
위키베이스(Wikibase)는 위키데이터의 기반이 되는 소프트웨어입니다. 이 소프트웨어는 위키베이스, 위키베이스 클라이언트, 위키베이스 라이브러리 세 종류의 미디어위키 확장기능으로 구성되어 있습니다.
  1. 위키베이스 확장기능 (위키데이터 서버에 대해서, 흔히 저장소 또는 repo로 약칭)은 미디어위키 시스템이 구조화된 데이터를 수집하고 관리할 수 있게 하여, 위키데이터 웹사이트 상에서 사용됩니다.
  2. 위키베이스 클라이언트 확장기능(클라이언트로 대개 줄여 부름)은 위키백과와 같은 미디어위키 시스템이 위키데이터 서버로부터 해당 페이지로 요청된 데이터 쿼리를 처리하고 데이터를 표시하게 하는 기능으로, 여러 언어의 위키백과와 다른 사이트에 채용되어 있습니다.
  3. 위키베이스 라이브러리 확장기능은 두 개의 주요 확장기능을 위한 공통 라이브러리를 구성하고 있습니다.
    Help:Wikibase
위키데이터(Wikidata)는 위키베이스 확장기능이 설치된 미디어위키를 기반으로 운영되는 위키미디어 프로젝트입니다. 위키데이터 편집자들이 데이터를 입력하고 문서를 열람할 수 있습니다.
Wikidata:Introduction
Wikidata Query Service (or WDQS) is the official service for querying Wikidata using the SPARQL query language.
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
위키미디어(Wikimedia)는 프로젝트를 통해 일반인에게 무료로 정보를 제공하자는 운동입니다.
Help:Wikimedia
Wiki is a website that can be edited by the visitors quickly, Wikipedia and Wikidata are wikis.
Help:Wiki

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