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Mineral list




Mineral list

This is a list of all minerals that is currently under construction (WikiProject Mineralogy: control panel).

Most important minerals
These links list the most important minerals

Sortable lists of Nickel-Strunz identifiersEdit

Backbone of the mineral classification
Modules, building blocks, ionic groups and ions are essential to describe a molecule
Valid minerals got striked through, if they appear a second time


  • Reference: quartz (specific gravity: 2.6-2.7, silica family), plagioclase series (specific gravity: 2.62-2.76, feldspar group) and alkali feldspar series (specific gravity: 2.53-2.62, feldspar group), ice (specific gravity: 0.9167), gold (specific gravity: 19.3) and (mercury (specific gravity: 13.6) and water)
  • Explanations

Identification of minerals and radioactive mineralsEdit

  1. Other minerals, special cases
    (e.g. frameworks with carbonate anion; some hydrous calcium silicates (mayenite supergroup, cement industry chemistry); tellurium oxysalts; beryllonite structural group)
  2. U, Th, Re, Rb, Zr, Y and REE minerals (radioactivity, streak, colour under UV (short wave UV, long wave UV))
    (after WW III, plutonium minerals)
    1. Uranyl minerals, very strong estimated radioactive strengh (ERS; more than 14% U, c. 3.3 mSv/(g x hr))
      c. 106 to 107 gamma ray response units (GR(api);
      1. Colour: yellow cake from past times, dry egg yolk, canary yellow, Ranunculus (yellow buttercups), Caltha palustris (Marsh marigold)
        1. Damage by cold HCl (aq.)
        2. No damage by cold HCl (aq.)
      2. Colour: uranyl green (copper)
      3. Colour: dirty yellow (iron and lead)
    2. Other minerals (235U, 232Th, 238U, 147Sm, 87Rb, 187Re, 176Lu, Zr, Y and REE minerals, mainly; webmineral and
      1. Dangerous ERS; minerals bearing Ra, Po, Pu (above 107 gamma ray response units ( barite bearing radium.
      2. update: mckelveyite-(Y) (8.7% Y, 5.79% U)
        1. Pyrochlore supergroup: oxyuranobetafite (46.8% U), oxynatromikrolite (9.0% U), fluorkenopyrochlore (8.7% Ce), fluornatropyrochlore (5.2% U, 0.51% Th), hydroxycalciopyrochlore (12.5% U), hydroxymanganopyrochlore (24.4% Th), oxynatropyrochlore (12.0% U), oxyyttropyrochlore-(Y) (13.8% Y).
      3. Strong ERS (more than 5.6% Th, c. 0.33 mSv/(g x hr))
        c. 105 to 106 gamma ray response units (
      4. Weak ERS (more than 0.56% Th, c. 33 μSv/(g x hr))
        c. 104 to 105 gamma ray response units (
      5. Mild ERS, high (more than 0.056% Th, c. 3.3 μSv/(g x hr))
        c. 103 to 104 gamma ray response units (
      6. Mild ERS, low (more than 0.005,6% Th)
        c. 102 to 103 gamma ray response units (
      7. Barely detectable ERS, high (more than 0.000,56% Th)
        c. 10 to 102 gamma ray response units (
      8. Barely detectable ERS, medium (more than 0.000,056% Th)
        c. 1 to 10 gamma ray response units (
      9. Barely detectable ERS, low (more than 0.000,005,6% Th)
        c. 0.1 to 1 gamma ray response units (
    3. Notes: best orientation is the estimated relative mass of some elements (U, Th, Re and Rb; natural isotopic abundance) based on the empirical formula of the type material ( and, assuming the mineral is "old" in geological terms (no "recent" genesis). REE-minerals have an estimated 5% Th/REE. Only sensitive detectors are able to detect radioactivity on minerals in the 'mild ERS' and 'barely detectable ERS' range. (Gamma ray response of common clay minerals, the detector is centered in a borehole with a 3 inch standoff; American Petroleum Institute (API): millisievert per hour exposure (one side of a mineral only) = GR(api)/(20,000x365x24); 0.15 millisievert per year exposure (NCRP Report, half of the estimated US-exposure to terrestrial sources) = 200 GR(api)).
  3. Lower density minerals
    1. Organic minerals (combustible)
    2. Significant water loss by drying
      1. Zeolites (free water boils): 34H2O (paulingite series), 30H2O (erionite and mazzite series), 24H2O (heulandite series), 20H2O (clinoptilolite series), 18H2O (ferrierite and lévyne series), 15H2O (faujasite series), 14H2O (garronite series), 13H2O (chabazite and dachiardite series), 12H2O (phillipsite series), 11H2O (gmelinite series)
      2. Chemical formulas with higher hydratation: 120H2O (whitecapsite), 98H2O (slavíkite), 86H2O (bouazzerite), 83H2O (packratite), 78H2O (morrisonite, vanarsite), 75H2O (cacoxenite), 70H2O (boggsite), 60H2O (lepersonnite-(Gd), mutinaite), 58H2O (furongite), 56H2O (paramendozavilite), 52H2O (liskeardite), 48H2O (nakauriite), 46H2O (ophirite), 41H2O (richetite), 40H2O (chessexite), 39H2O (bijvoetite-(Y)), 38H2O (pahasapaite), 36H2O (chalcophyllite, cossaite, direnzoite, sasaite)
  4. Key I: dimeric and polymeric minerals (streak with bass)
  5. Key II: monomeric minerals (shrill streak)
    1. Hydrous minerals
    2. Anhydrous minerals
  6. Key III: "soluble" minerals (damage by cold HCl (aq.))
  7. Key IV: "ore" minerals (higher density and non-white streak)

Proposed estimated radioactivity (

Element (natural isotopic abundance) Activity (Becquerels/g)
Uranium (U) 179,000
Thorium (Th) 44,800
90% Samarium (Sm) + 10% Th 4,590
90% Lutetium (Lu) + 10% Th 4,520
Rare Earth Elements (REE) or
Yttrium (Y) or Zirconium (Zr)
+ 10% Th
96% Samarium (Sm) + 4% Th 1,910
96% Lutetium (Lu)+ 4% Th 1,840
Rare Earth Elements (REE) or
Yttrium (Y) or Zirconium (Zr)
+ 4% Th
Rhenium (Re) 1,020
Rubidium (Rb) 891
Potassium (K) 30.3


Inorganic minerals
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
'IMA-CNMNC Master List of Valid Minerals', key zero

Inorganic minerals, key IEdit

Non white streak, mainly; denser minerals; "ore" minerals

Inorganic minerals, key II (anchor)Edit

White streak, mainly; "soluble" minerals

Inorganic minerals, key III (tetrahedral units, mostly non silicates)Edit

White streak, mainly; monomeric minerals, similar to nesosilicates
  • Tetrahedral units:
  • Sulfate class: (SO4)2-, (S2O3)2-, (CrO4)2-, (WO4)2-, (MoO4)2-, (NbO4)2-
  • Phosphate class: (PO4)3-, (PO3OH)2-, [PO2(OH)2]1-, (AsO4)3-, (AsO3OH)2-, [AsO2(OH)2]1-, (VO4)3-
  • Nesosilicate subclass: (SiO4)4-, (GeO4)4-, [SiO3(OH)]3-, [SiO2(OH)2]2-
  • Others (borate minerals and special cases): [B(OH)4]-, (BO3)3-, tellurium(IV) oxysalts, etc.
  • Nesogermanates (krieselite, brunogeierite and carboirite) are considered a "nesosilicate mineral (broad sense)" here

Inorganic minerals, key IV (most silicates)Edit

White streak, mainly; di- and polymeric minerals, similar to di- and polymeric silicates (groups, frameworks (3-D frameworks, sheets and rings), ribbons and single chains)
  • There is a difference between: oxide minerals; monomeric minerals, similar to isolated silicates; silicates, polymeric minerals
  • Filatovite, minjiangite and dmisteinbergite are considered "tectosilicates (broad sense)" here
  • Cossaite is considered a "phyllosilicate (broad sense)" here
  • Olivine group and chrysoberyl-mariinskite series are considered "similar to polymeric silicates" here

Other minerals, key V (special cases)Edit

  • Special cases and organic minerals (anchor) ok.*
    • Tellurium oxysalts; chalcoalumite-cyanotrichite and ettringite structural group; beryllonite group; mayenite supergroup
    • Organic minerals; (Holocene stratigraphy, antropogenic minerals)
Organic minerals
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
Table of crystal cell parameters, key VI
Valid minerals and polytypes; cubic and pseudocubic, hexagonal and pseudohexagonal, trigonal and pseudotrigonal, orthorhombic and pseudoorthorhombic, tetragonal and pseudotetragonal, monoclinic and pseudoonoclinic, triclinic crystal system.

Auxiliary listsEdit

  • Note: the superscript '*' refers to 'named after' notable person; Strunz 8 ed., MinDat without numeration by Athena (8); 'Nickel-Strunz' 9 ed., updated 2009 (9); 'Nickel-Strunz' 10 ed., MinDat (10); 'crystal system' (cs) and 'space group' done, mainly. Review after end of April 2015 (r). Solid solutions and revised chemical formula review (*).
  • Mineral status, approved after 1959 ('A', based on approved minerals, chemical structure was not redefined.
  • Mineral status, approved and redefined after 1959 ('Rd', based on approved minerals, chemical structure was redefined.
  • Mineral status, grandfathered ('G', based on grandfathered mineral, publication before 1916, chemical structure was not redefined.
  • Issues/ reviews:
  • End of April 2015 update (8 ed, 9 ed (update), 10 ed)
  • Questionable mineral administration
  • Solid solutions property and revised chemical formula
  • Questionable status (IMA/CNMNC)
  • Minerals:
  • Monomeric minerals
  • Dimeric minerals: sorosilicates and sorovanadates
  • Polymeric minerals: frameworks (3-D frameworks, sheets, rings), single chains and multiple chains

Shorter mineral listEdit

A mineral appears only once
  • For example: schapbachite, rocksalt structural group on and galena group on "Glossary of Minerals Species" 10 ed, is superseded by "Sulfosalt systematics: a review. Report of the sulfosalt sub-committee of the IMA Commission on Ore Mineralogy" (2008).
  • Exception: bismuthinite.
  • Important minerals:
  • Chrysoberyl - alexandriteI - mariinskite series, mogánite, nolanite
  • Economic geology minerals (m), list of gemstones minerals (g), list of rock-forming minerals (r), list of textbook minerals (t), mineral collector guide (c)
First part
Subpart 1.1; structural groups
(cyanotrichite, fluorite, perovskite, rocksalt, rutile, sphalerite, spinel, wurtzite)
Subpart 1.2; no oxygen (excluding halides)
(metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
  • 2a: "sulfides", strict sense (excluding sulfosalts) ✓ Done (back not done)
(selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides)
  • 2b: sulfosalts, broad sense ✓ Done* (back not done)
Subpart 1.3; "carbonates" and "evaporites"
Subpart 1.4; "oxides", "sulfates", "phosphates" and nesosilicates
(selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, niobates, tungstates)
Second part; polymeric silicates, mainly
Third part; others I
Other structural groups (e.g. hydrotalcite supergroup)
Organic compounds and other silicates
Controversial mineral discreditations (although probably valid)
  • Evans, H.T., Konnert, J.A., Ross, M. (2000) Am. Mineral., 85, 1808-1815
  • Artioli G, Galli E (1999) Gonnardite: re-examination of holotype material and discreditation of tetranatrolite. American Mineralogist 84, 1445-1450
  • Lee Y, Hriljac J A, Parise J B, Vogt T (2006) Pressure-induced hydration in zeolite tetranatrolite. American Mineralogist 91, 247-251
  • Seryotkin, Yu,V. & Bakakin, V.V. (2007): The reversibility of the paranatrolite-tetranatrolite transformation. European Journal of Mineralogy, 19, 593-598
  • Buserite (IMA 1970-024, discredited and re-validated? (IMA ???); dehydrates to birnessite)
  • Helvetica Chimica Acta 54 (1971), 1112; American Mineralogist 68 (1983), 972
  • Nanotube-like imogolite; IMA 1987 s.p.; formally rejected (incomplete description), redefined and revalidated)
Fourth part; others II
Secondary list
  • 'Meta-' (uranyl, mainly) mineral pairs
  • Contradictory mineral classifications: pascoite, daubréeite, cyanotrichite group
  • Main synthetic minerals discovered in nature
  • Important varieties
  • Notable minerals with bonds containing N: gianellaite, kleinite, mosesite, julienite
  • Notable minerals with NH4 cations: biphosphammite (1870), boussingaultite (1864), cryptohalite (1873), darapskite (1891), dittmarite (1887), hannayite (1879), kremersite (1853), larderellite (1854), lecontite (1858), mascagnite (1800), phosphammite (1852), salammoniac (1556), schertelite (1902), stercorite (1850), struvite (1847), teschemacherite (1868), tschermigite (1858)
  • Notable silicate minerals with CO3 anions: aerinite (1876), cancrinite (1833), davyne (1825), kainosite-(Y) (1886), meionite (1801), molybdophyllite (1901), sarcolite (1807), spurrite (1908), thaumasite (1878)
IMA-approved non crystalline mineral species


Wikidata:WikiProject_Mineralogy/Notes and archive

I Store norske leksikon (rocks, minerals and mineral varieties list)Edit

Wikidata:WikiProject Mineralogy/Rocks, minerals and mineral varieties list

Sortable list of minerals (Mineral Identification Key II)Edit

The Mineral ID Key
Wikidata:WikiProject Mineralogy/Mineral Identification Key II list

Economic geology minerals, stricter senseEdit

Minerals with a comercial importance

Automatic listsEdit

  • Cubic minerals: description, picture, named-after, crystal system, point group, space group
  • Cubic minerals 2: streak color, color, crystal habit, twinning, Solid solution, fracturing
  • Cubic minerals 3: chemical formula, dana, strunz, IMA
  • Cubic minerals 4: cleavage, density, refractive index, discoverer or inventor, Hermann–Mauguin,