|This page in a nutshell:
A property describes the data value of a statement and can be thought of as a category of data, for example "color" for the data value "blue". Properties, when paired with values, form a statement in Wikidata. Properties are also used in qualifiers.
|occupation||occupation of a person||profession; job; work; career|
|profession||métier ou occupation d'une personne||métier; occupation|
|zawód||zawód osoby, zobacz także "dziedzina"||(none yet added)|
However, properties do not have a section on their pages for sitelinks to other wikimedia projects, and they also do not have external identifiers. Each property does have what is known as a data type which defines the kind of values allowed in statements with that property.
See Statistics for additional summaries of existing properties.
Several external tools exist to list properties, for instance:
To propose a property, click here and choose a topic category. Click the blue button "Create request page" and then fill out the provided template with as much information as possible. Make sure to include a possible property name in English (this will be the label), a description, the data type, examples of the type of item that may bear the property, and an example of how the property would be used. Don't worry about getting everything right the first time; that's what the discussion process is for.
If you are interested in being involved at the property proposal level for a specific subject matter, consider joining or creating a WikiProject, a group of contributors who want to work together to improve a particular aspect of Wikidata. These groups often focus on how to best represent the data for a particular area of knowledge.
To request to be a property creator, visit Wikidata:Requests for permissions.
Property labels should be as unambiguous as possible so that it is clear to a user which property is the correct one to use when editing items and adding statements. Properties rarely refer to commonly known concepts but they are more constructs of the Wikidata with specific meanings. Unlike items, property labels must be unique.
Property descriptions are less relevant for disambiguation but they should provide enough information about the scope and context of the property so that users understand appropriate usage of the property without having to consult additional help.
Property aliases should include all alternative ways of referring to the property.
- property: P161
- label: cast member
- description: actor performing live for a camera or audience
- aliases: film starring; actor; actress; starring
Label, description, and aliases of a property are first discussed by the community during the property proposal process. Major changes to a property should be discussed on its talk page first.
See Help:Data_type#Changing_datatype for changing the datatype of a property.
Wikidata relies on consistency. For instance, all persons should have common properties whenever possible, whether they are politicians, artists or scientists, living or historical, fictional or not. If you are unsure whether the property you are using is most appropriate for the statement, consult the property's discussion page or ask on Wikidata:Project chat. An automatically generated list of properties currently supported by Wikidata can be found at here. Community-maintained lists can also be found at Wikidata:List of properties.
Bidirectional relationships and hierarchies
Wikidata does not support automatic bidirectional links (phabricator:T51165), so some properties need to be added and maintained twice. If, for example, A is a child of B on A's item page, the relation B as the parent of A also needs to be maintained on B's item page.
In general, only simple hierarchical properties should be recorded as statements. For example, record properties like child (P40)–father (P22) and/or mother (P25), but not properties like grandchild–grandparent, niece–aunt, niece–uncle, etc. Such additional relationships can be derived from the existing data.
Please see Help:Frequently used properties for guidelines and examples of using properties related to scientific taxonomies, administrative divisions, sources, Wikimedia Commons files, and more.
For related Help pages, see:
- Help:Frequently used properties, for help with using specific properties
- Wikidata:List of properties, community-maintained lists of Wikidata properties - Special:AllPages/Property:, a special page showing all properties
- Help:Statements, which explains what statements are and what rules they follow
- Help:Qualifiers, which explains what qualifiers are and what rules they follow
- Help:Items, which explains what items are and what rules they follow
- Wikidata:Property proposal, to discuss new properties before they are created - Wikidata:Properties for deletion to nominate properties for deletion
- Wikidata:Property creators, for users granted the technical ability to create properties
- Wikidata:WikiProjects, a list of users who work together to improve representation and coverage of a specific topic or domain
- Wikidata:Relation between properties in RDF and in Wikidata
- Wikidata:WikiProject Ontology
- Wikidata:Identifiers for identifiers in Wikidata in general and identifier properties in particular
- Wikidata:WikiProject Properties
- MediaWiki:Wikibase-SortedProperties controls the order in which properties are presented on an item
For additional information and guidance, see: