Wikidata:WikiProject Narration


The aim of this project is to discuss, define, collect and document approaches to indicate the narrative features of stories in different media (e.g. folk tales, books, comics, films, audio plays, performances, games, etc.)


Resources about the modelling of narrative features and for informations about narration.

Models and OntologiesEdit

Foundational WorksEdit

Introductions and reference worksEdit


Aspects of narrationEdit

Fictional entitiesEdit


fictional character (Q95074), narrative entity (Q21070598)

Agents of the narration.



story (Q217086)

The events that happened in the fictional world the story is set in.


plot (Q1758354)

The events that are told in the narrative in a certain order and with a certain emphasis.


storyteller (Q755070)

The point of view and voice from/with which the story is told. Characteristics of the narrator can be either indicated via narrator (P2438) or, if the narrator is a character, on the item for the character.

Main themes, literary themes and narrative motifsEdit

theme (Q1053916), plot kernel (Q42109240), narrative motif (Q1697305)

A narrative work can be described with respect to ideas and notions expressed in it:


intertextuality (Q667404)

Narrations and fictional entities can refer to other works (and to reality).

  • they can be based on another work --> based on (P144) (especially used for adaptations - works a certain work is based on)
  • they can be based on a work by another person --> after a work by (P1877) (especially if there is no single work by this person the work is based on (e.g. "based on characters by ..."), otherwise based on (P144) <work> is preferable)

Properties and QualifiersEdit


There are currently two entity types used to describe narrations: fictional entities and narrative works

Properties for fictional entities:

A fictional, mythical, folkloristic or legendary entity has to be marked as such by making it an (indirect) instance of fictional entity (Q14897293), mythical entity (Q24334685), folklore character (Q25810847) or legendary figure (Q13002315) (see Wikidata:WikiProject_Fictional_universes). In all other statements you can use the same properties and items that can be used in similar statements about non-fictional entities. Here are just some properties which are especially relevant for entities from stories:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
instance ofP31Iteminstance of: every fictional entity has to be an (indirect) instance of fictional entity (Q14897293)Reynard <instance of> fictional fox-
present in workP1441Itemwork: the work in whose story a certain entity appears.Bowser <present in work> Super Mariocharacters
significant personP3342Itemperson: used to indicate the relation between characters, to be qualified with object has role (P3831).

There exist following specialized properties for relations between characters:

Common values for object has role (P3831):

Antonie Buddenbrook <significant person> Morten Schwarzkopf-
narrative roleP5800Itemnarrative role: the role a certain entity plays in a narration, qualified with of (P642) to indicate the work in which the entity fulfills this function (to indicate that a game character is a player character (Q1062345)/non-playable character (Q466466)/boss (Q468388) use subject has role (P2868) - via discussion at Wikidata:WikiProject_Video_games (September 2018))Anna Karenina <narrative role> protagonist-
character typeP9071Itemstock character: the character type of a certain characterEmmett Brown <character type> absent-minded professor-
subject has roleP2868Itemrole: used on game characters to indicate their role in terms of game mechanics (e.g. player character (Q1062345), non-playable character (Q466466), boss (Q468388)) (see discussion at Wikidata:WikiProject_Video_games (September 2018))Guybrush Threepwood <subject has role> player character-
appears in the form ofP4675Itemshapeshifter: form taken by this fictional entity (e.g. by shapeshifting or other forms of transformation)Gregor Samsa <appears in the form of> insect-
possessed by spiritP4292Itemspirit possession: item which is spiritually possessing this itemJanosz Poha <possessed by spirit> Vigo the Carpathian-
superhuman feature or abilityP2563Itemsuperpower and superhuman quality: superhuman, supernatural, or paranormal abilities that the subject exhibitsScarlet Witch <superhuman feature or ability> reality warping-
personality trait of fictional characterP9652Itempersonality trait: particular personality trait which applies to this fictional characterScrooge McDuck <personality trait of fictional character> parsimony-
fictional analog ofP1074Itempersons (or other entities) this entity is supposed to representEarth-that-was <fictional analog of> Earth-
inspired byP941Itemartistic inspiration: persons (or other entities) that inspired a certain entitySimon Dedalus <inspired by> John Stanislaus Joyce-
based onP144Itembased on: fictional entity a certain fictional entity is derived from (for persons that inspired a certain character use inspired by (P941)Alice <based on> Alicederivative work
incarnation ofP3701Itemincarnation: incarnation of another religious or supernatural beingThirteenth Doctor <incarnation of> The Doctor-
first appearanceP4584Itemfirst appearance: work in which a fictional/mythical character or entity first appearedSherlock Holmes <first appearance> A Study in Scarlet-
narrative ageP6249Quantityfictional character: age of a character within a story world, may be qualified with of (P642). Currently age at event (P3629) is also in use for this purpose (see qualifiers below).Bart Simpson <narrative age> 10-

If you really want to nerd out about your favorite character, consider if the following properties might apply:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
lifestyleP1576Itemlifestyle: Does your Character practice vegetarianism (Q83364) or is she an hermit (Q189829) or is he in the high society (Q17126676)? more valuesMalcolm Reynolds <lifestyle> outlaw-
medical conditionP1050Itemhealth problem and physiological condition: Like post-traumatic stress disorder (Q202387) or claustrophobia (Q186892)Henry DeTamble <medical condition> chrono-impairment disorder-
political ideologyP1142Itempolitical ideology: political ideology of an organization or person or of a work (such as a newspaper)Aang <political ideology> pacifism-
social classificationP3716Itemsocial class, personnal status in France and social status: social class as recognized in traditional or state lawSally Hemings <social classification> enslaved person-
interested inP2650Itemitem of special or vested interest to this person or organisationEHRI <interested in> The Holocaust-

Properties for narrative works:

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
charactersP674Itemfictional character: the characters appearing in a work, can be qualified with object has role (P3831)/narrative role (P5800) (see qualifier section below) to indicate the role of a character in the narrationThe Sleeping Beauty <characters> wicked fairy godmotherpresent in work
narratorP2438Itemstoryteller and narrator: the character or actor narrating the story or the type of narrator used to narrate the storyThe Usual Suspects <narrator> unreliable narrator-
usesP2283Itemuse: could be used to indicate the narrative techniques used in a work (maybe there should be an own property)The Neverending Story <uses> story within a storyused by
narrative locationP840Itemnarrative location: location a work is set inThe Man Without Qualities <narrative location> Vienna-
set in environmentP8411Itemenvironment (geographic feature, building type, etc.) the narrative work is set inshower scene of Psycho <set in environment> bathroom-
set in periodP2408Itemhistorical period: period a work is set in, events featured by a workMephisto <set in period> 1930s-
set during recurring eventP9215Itemrecurring event (e.g. season, month, holiday) during which this fictional work is setLady Snowblood <set during recurring event> winter-
influenced byP737Itemsocial influence: ideas, developments, disciplines, etc. that remarkably influenced a certain workStrange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde <influenced by> criminology-
inspired byP941Itemartistic inspiration: works, events or persons which inspired a certain workCyrano de Bergerac <inspired by> Cyrano de Bergerac-
based onP144Itembased on: work(s) this work is derived fromDaphnis and Chloe <based on> Daphnis and Chloederivative work
references work, tradition or theoryP8371Itemreference: works a certain work refers to1Q84 <references work, tradition or theory> Sinfonietta-
quotes workP6166Itemquotation: work this work directly quotesHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows <quotes work> 1 Corinthians 15-
after a work byP1877Itemcreative work: person whose work inspired a certain workBatman & Robin <after a work by> Bob Kane-
manifestation ofP1557Itemmanifestation: tale type another work is a manifestation ofSun, Moon, and Talia <manifestation of> Sleeping Beauty-
series spin-offP2512Itemspin-off: spin-off of this series (use plot expanded in (P5940) for other kinds of work)All in the Family <series spin-off> Maude-
plot expanded inP5940Itemsequel, prequel and tie-in: a work that expands the narrative in this work (see also series spin-off (P2512) for series); may be qualified with object has role (P3831) to specify the kind of expansion (sequel (Q261636), prequel (Q678345), tie-in (Q1187053))Where No Man Has Gone Before <plot expanded in> To Boldly Go: Part I-
main subjectP921Itemtopic, matter, topic of a work and Subject: the main idea of a narrative work (according to sources). May be contested (in this case one can use qualifiers like statement disputed by (P1310), statement supported by (P3680))Lolita <main subject> solipsism-
depictsP180Itemdepiction: an object (e.g. event) described by the narration.The Tin Drum <depicts> Kristallnachtdepicted by
narrative motifP6962Itemnarrative motif: thematic unit used to develop a theme, mood or plot. May be qualified with symbolizes (P4878)Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde <narrative motif> doppelgänger-


Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
applies to workP10663Itemwork: used to restrict a statement to a certain narrative work, replaces the previous uses of of (P642) or present in work (P1441)Maleficent <narrative role> protagonist
<applies to work> Maleficent
narrative roleP5800Itemnarrative role: to indicate the role a fictional entity plays in a certain narrative work, as a qualifier to characters (P674) (Please note the discussion at Property_talk:P5800 (November 6th, 2018). Currently the use as a statement seems to be preferred)Sleeping Beauty <characters> Maleficent
<narrative role> antagonist
object has roleP3831Itemrole: to indicate the game function of a character in a certain game (e.g. player character (Q1062345), non-playable character (Q466466), boss (Q468388)), as a qualifier to characters (P674)Life Is Strange <characters> Chloe Price
<object has role> non-playable character
relative toP2210Itemreference point: to indicate the entity a statement is true relative toThe Little Man <narrative role> foil
<relative to> Pink Panther
age at eventP3629Quantityage of a person: to indicate the age of a character in a certain work (it's uses could probably be replaced with narrative age (P6249) as a statement)Bilbo Baggins <present in work> The Hobbit
<age at event> 50
time indexP4895Quantitytime: to indicate at what moment in a certain work (e.g. minute, chapter, fictional unit of time) a statement is true.1Q84 <narrative location> Shibuya-ku
<time index> 3 chapter
symbolizesP4878Itemsymbol: as a qualifier to present in work (P1441) or narrative motif (P6962) for fictional entities or Motifs said (by appropriate sources) to represent or embody an abstract concept in a certain work.Engywook <present in work> The Neverending Story
<symbolizes> science
statement is regarded as spoiler forP7528Itemspoiler: as a qualifier to any claim to indicate that this could be a spoilerThe Narrator <said to be the same as> Tyler Durden
<statement is regarded as spoiler for> Fight Club
nature of statementP5102Itemto indicate the nature of the statement. Special uses for statements about fictional entites: The Addams Family <named after> Charles Addams
<nature of statement> out-of-universe perspective


Identifiers that may be relevant for narratives

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
Aarne–Thompson–Uther Tale Type IndexP2540StringAarne–Thompson–Uther classification system: index used to classify folktalesCinderella <Aarne–Thompson–Uther Tale Type Index> 510A-

Identifiers that may be relevant for elements of narratives.

Title ID Data type Description Examples Inverse
Archive of Our Own tagP8419External identifierArchive of Our Own: tag for this item on "Archive of Our Own"Harry Potter <Archive of Our Own tag> Harry Potter-
Fandom article IDP6262External identifierFandom: identifier of an article on Fandom (Wikia). Format: subdomain:Page_titleKermit the Frog <Fandom article ID> muppet:Kermit_the_Frog-
Goodreads character IDP6327External identifierGoodreads: identifier for a fictional character on GoodreadsRincewind <Goodreads character ID> 26569-
Iconclass notationP1256External identifierIconclass: Iconclass code that corresponds with an artistic theme or concept. For artworks, use P1257 (depicts Iconclass notation)milkmaid <Iconclass notation> 47I22311-
Comic Vine IDP5905External identifierComic Vine: identifier at the Comic Vine database of comic books, fictional characters, people, films and television series/episodesBatman <Comic Vine ID> 4005-1699-
TV Tropes identifierP6839External identifierTV Tropes and film/tv trope: identifier in the TV Tropes online wikiGame of Thrones <TV Tropes identifier> Series/GameOfThrones-
MyAnimeList character IDP4085External identifierMyAnimeList: identifier for a fictional character on MyAnimeListSagara Sanosuke <MyAnimeList character ID> 149- character IDP6296External identifierBangumi: identifier for a character or group of characters on (Bangumi/Chobits)Freyja Wion < character ID> 36560-
INDUCKS character IDP4479External identifierINDUCKS: identifier for a character of the Disney UniverseDonald Duck <INDUCKS character ID> DD-
Marvel character IDP5621External and Marvel Comics: identifier for a character on the websiteScott Lang <Marvel character ID> 1010801-
LGBTFansDB character IDP6780External identifieridentifier for a character entry on LGBT fans deserve better databaseLily Aldrin <LGBTFansDB character ID> lily-aldrin-met-mother-
AniDB character IDP5648External identifierAniDB: identifier for a character in AniDB database, if multiple identifiers are available for one character, use the smallest number oneNanachi <AniDB character ID> 89866-
Behind The Voice Actors character IDP5107External identifierBehind The Voice Actors: identifier of a character from the Behind The Voice Actors websiteRei Ayanami <Behind The Voice Actors character ID> Evangelion/Rei-Ayanami-
FFF character IDP5620External identifier for a character on the Franco Fossati Foundation websiteDiabolik <FFF character ID> d/diabolik-
AnimeClick character IDP5847External identifierAnimeClick: identifier of character from AnimeClick databaseSon Gokū <AnimeClick character ID> 5986-
Cultureel Woordenboek IDP3569External identifierCultureel Woordenboek: identifier for a concept in the Dutch Cultureel Woordenboek ('Cultural Dictionary')Sisyphus <Cultureel Woordenboek ID> mythologie/sisyfos-
Getty Iconography Authority IDP5986External identifierGetty Iconography Authority: identifier from the Getty Iconography AuthorityShiva <Getty Iconography Authority ID> 901000021-
CERL Thesaurus IDP1871External identifierCERL Thesaurus: identifier in the Consortium of European Research Libraries ThesaurusSimone da Lesina <CERL Thesaurus ID> cnp00166993-
Visual Novel Database IDP3180External identifierThe Visual Novel Database: identifier at the Visual Novel DatabaseDo You Like Horny Bunnies? <Visual Novel Database ID> v133-
Giant Bomb IDP5247External identifierGiant Bomb: identifier at the Giant Bomb database of video games, fictional characters and voice actorsHalo 2 <Giant Bomb ID> 3030-7110-
GND IDP227External identifierGND ID: identifier from an international authority file of names, subjects, and organizations (please don't use type n = name, disambiguation) - Deutsche Nationalbibliothekuniverse <GND ID> 4079154-3-
VIAF IDP214External identifierVIAF ID: identifier for the Virtual International Authority File database [format: up to 22 digits]Stan Lauryssens <VIAF ID> 120062731-
NLP ID (old)P1695External identifierNational Library of Poland: former National Library of Poland unique identifier. Format: "A", 7 digits, "X" or another digit. For the newer 16-digit format, use "NLP ID (PLWABN record)" (P7293)Jan Stanisław Skorupski <NLP ID (old)> A11107844-
IdRef IDP269External identifierIdRef: identifier for authority control in the French collaborative library catalog (see also P1025). Format: 8 digits followed by a digit or "X"Victor Hugo <IdRef ID> 026927608-
Bibliothèque nationale de France IDP268External identifierBnF authorities, Bibliothèque nationale de France and general catalog of BnF: identifier for the subject issued by BNF (Bibliothèque nationale de France). Format: 8 digits followed by a check-digit or letter, do not include the initial 'cb'.René Magritte <Bibliothèque nationale de France ID> 123735831-
Encyclopædia Britannica Online IDP1417External identifierEncyclopædia Britannica Online: identifer for an article in the online version of Encyclopædia BritannicaAlfred Hitchcock <Encyclopædia Britannica Online ID> biography/Alfred-Hitchcock-
Disney A to Z IDP6181External identifierDisney A to Z: ID of article in online version of Disney A to ZMickey Mouse <Disney A to Z ID> mickey-mouse-
Quora topic IDP3417External identifierQuora: identifier for a topic on Quora (English language version)Wikidata <Quora topic ID> Wikidata-

Missing properties and qualifiersEdit

Should there be an own property to indicate the narrative techniques used in a work or is benutzt (P2283) sufficient?



Some items in the field where some work was done, for inspiration and discussion (please add other interesting items if you find them):

See also the work done in Fiction WikiProjects dedicated to one work/universe, like

Open QuestionsEdit

narrator (P2438)Edit

narrator (P2438) is currently used for characters, actors and types of narrator. Maybe it would be better to have an own property for types of narrators.


How to indicate the order of certain events

  • in the chronology of a certain storyworld
  • in the narration (the order in which they are narrated)

The first point is a lesser problem if the story is roughly set in our time line and there is an indication of dates (then one can simply use start time (P580), end time (P582) etc). time index (P4895) can be used to indicate time if there is a fictional system of time measurement (e.g. stardate (Q1262613)).

The second point could be solved by being able to refer to certain passages of a work. time index (P4895) could be used for that in statements about the work (e.g. its geographic setting). It seems difficult to use in statements about fictional entities, as an entity can appear in several works and it remains unclear which one is meant (maybe one could combine both time index (P4895) and present in work (P1441) as qualifiers).

Narrative techniques and plot devicesEdit

Should there be an own property to indicate the narrative techniques used in a work or is uses (P2283) sufficient?

Characters appearing in multiple works (adaptations, spin-offs) with different characteristicsEdit

Currently there are two approaches how to deal with characters appearing in different works in which they may have different characteristics: 1) Qualify the diverging statements with applies to work (P10663) and 2) create a new item for character appearances, linking the character versions via based on (P144) and said to be the same as (P460). An example for the first approach would be Jhil (Q64141306), one for the second approach would be Count Pyotr (Pierre) Bezukhov (Q55033135).

One challenge is to be still able to query for works based on events that happened there or the properties of their characters: If a character died of tuberculosis in one work it appears in but not in all, it should be possible to retrieve only the work in which the character appears and dies of tuberculosis.

The second approach may deal with this challenge generally fine, but it may involve the creation of a lot of characters with possible duplicate or missing information. There may be still the need to qualify statements with applies to work (P10663) in case of characters appearing in multiple works set in the same universe.

The first approach could work following these rules:

  • Every statement that is not true for all works in which the character appears should be qualified via applies to work (P10663), listing all the works in which this statement is true.
  • Statements that are true in all works should not be qualified.

Now, to retrieve all works in which a character dies of tuberculosis one would just need to query for all works with characters that a) have a statement cause of death (P509) tuberculosis (Q12204) without a applies to work (P10663) qualifier and b) have a statement cause of death (P509) tuberculosis (Q12204) qualified with applies to work (P10663) <work>.

Related WikiProjectsEdit


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