维基数据:术语表

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声明元素,来自Q42

本术语表定义了重要的维基数据概念,并引用了更详细的信息。请参阅维基数据:简介以获取对维基数据的概述;参阅术语表指引以获得编写和改进术语表条目的方法。

术语表
别名(也称为“别称”)是数据项或属性的替代用名。通常(或是最重要)的名称是标签。别名帮助那些不通过标签进行搜索的人们查找数据项。例如,数据项Q2的标签是“地球”,别名有“Tellus”和“Blue Planet”等。是其中一種術語
Help:Aliases
Article placeholder is an extension to display stub articles and to start Wikipedia articles based on a view of Wikidata items. See mw:Extension:ArticlePlaceholder.
徽章(Badges)是可以附加在网站链接上的可选标记。例如,在某个链接旁边,可以标记其为“特色条目”和/或“已校对”页面。
Help:Badges
Category item, template item and module item are Wikidata items with sitelinks to (Wikipedia) categories, templates or modules, respectively. This is their main (sometimes only) purpose. When the last sitelink is deleted, these items are generally deleted (see Wikidata:Database reports/to delete).
声称是在实体页面上显示的,与这些实体有关的一些数据。一个声称包含一个属性(如location (P276))和一个(如Germany (Q183))或特殊值(如“无值”或“未知值”)组成。一个声称可能含有限定符,如时间限定符,它表示该声明在一定时间段内有效。与RDF数据模型中的三元组相比,声称使用属性表示三元组的断言,用值表示三元组的对象。声称是项目页面上声明的一部分,并可由参考排序补充,也可存在于非项目页面中。
Commons (or Wikimedia Commons) is a Wikimedia project to store images, audio, video and other files. Wikibase includes three different datatypes to link from Wikidata to media files, geographic shapes and tabular data. Commons is adding statements to files as mediaentities.
Completeness is an assessment of available data with a measure for coverage. At Wikidata the presence of an item or statement does not imply that all similar items or statements are present. Wikibase does not include any completeness indicator. Quantity properties can be used to compare with available statements or items. Sample: the item about states of the USA has a statement with quantity 50. One can compare that with the count of uses of the item. A few tools attempt to measure completeness. To some extent, property suggester and suggestion constraints indicate elements missing to complete items.
Complex constraint (or custom constraint) is a constraint defined by a freely chosen SPARQL query in a template on a property talk page.
Template:Complex constraint
合并是一种错误,通常在一个项目上,几种不同概念的各个方面混合在一起。 例如,具有一个人的出生日期和另一个人的职业的同名物品。
Help:Conflation of two people
约束规定了如何使用特定的属性。例如,大多数标识符应该只有一个值,因此标记它们为单值约束
Help:Constraints
Constraint report can refer to a series of periodically updated pages for each property based on constraints or a special page for an individual item or other entity.
Wikidata:Database_reports/Constraint_violations
Cradle is an editing tool to create new Wikidata items based on a form with predefined properties and values.
Wikidata:Cradle
数据类型数据值类型或'值类型')是可以分配给属性的数据类型values ,并指定数据值在每个claim中的存储方式。每个property都被分配一个预定义的数据类型。只要缺少某些数据类型,并非所有值都可以链接。新数据类型的开发仍在进行中。另请参阅Special:ListDatatypes了解当前可用的数据类型。
Help:Data type
Date (or time or timeValue) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter dates in different precisions and enables date calculations in queries. Hour or minute precision isn't supported. The Wikidata property for the date of foundation has such values.
Help:Dates
描述itempropertyquery的特定于语言的描述性短语。它提供label的上下文(例如,有许多关于标签为Cambridge的地方。因此,描述不需要是唯一的,无论是语言还是一般的维基数据,但它必须与label一起唯一。标签和描述组合的唯一性是一个严格的约束。如果您的贡献不符合此要求,则无法保存更改。
Help:Description
Disambiguation item is a Wikidata item with sitelinks to disambiguation pages. This is its only purpose. Generally, it has a claim with instance of (P31)=Wikimedia disambiguation page (Q4167410).
Wikidata:WikiProject Disambiguation pages
Duplicate is an entity, generally an item, about the same concept as another entity/item. Duplicates are usually merged creating a redirecting entity. Special types of duplicates are temporary duplicates, permanent duplicates, and true duplicates.
Editing interface is a view that allows to add or modify data. These views are the default view, the Commons structured data interface, Wikidata bridge, and a series of api-based tools, notably QuickStatements, Cradle, PetScan, OpenRefine or the pyBot framework.

实体是Wikidata page的内容,可以是item(在主名称空间中),property(在属性名称空间中)。每个实体都由一个entity ID唯一标识,该实体ID是一个前缀数字,例如,以项目的前缀$q-前缀和属性的$p-前缀开头。一个实体也由每种语言的labeldescription的唯一组合来标识。一个实体可能有多种语言的备用别名。每个实体还有一个dereferenceable URI,它遵循模式http://www.wikidata.org/entity/ID,其中ID是它的实体ID。

Other extensions may define new types of entities. For example:

Entity selector allows to pick an entity from a selection generated after typing part of its name. This is based on label and aliases. Usually the description is displayed. Sample: type "human" to pick Q1156970 from "human (Q5) common name of Homo sapiens", "humanity (Q1156970) total world population of human", etc. This is different from the Property Suggester.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
EntitySchema is a special type of Wikidata page containing a document in ShEx format, and related metadata. Although it may have labels, descriptions and aliases similar to items, it is not a type of entity, nor powered by Wikibase. Entities may be validated against an EntitySchema using a tool.
外部标识符:某些属性的值是外部组织数据库中使用的字符串,它们是一个item的唯一识别标志。例如,书籍的ISBN、电影URL的独特部分、或互联网电影数据库中的一名演员。
Federation query is a query through a service available on Query Server allowing to access databases other than Wikidata.
Wikidata:SPARQL federation input
Form refers to specific strings of characters that occur in the different grammatical contexts for a lexeme. Forms are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "F" and a number. Forms may have statements just as other entities do; they are also assigned "grammatical features" such as "plural" for Form L1298-F2 ("forms").
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
Historic information is included by qualifying it with a date. If information is no longer current, date qualifiers are added instead of statements overwritten. Historic information is different from incorrect information
Human (or instance of human) is a Wikidata item about a person or an individual. It has a claim with instance of (P31)=human (Q5).
Incorrect information is a claim supported by a reference, but generally considered invalid or inaccurate. While Wikipedia generally excludes such information, Wikidata's deprecated rank allows to flag such statements. This avoids that it's deleted and erroneously re-added as valid information. Incorrect information is different from historic information
Instance, subclass or part (also class or type) are used on Wikidata to refer to Property:P31, Property:P279, Property:P527 and few related properties, their values, or items using them.
Help:Basic membership properties
数据项,简称,是指在维基数据中给出标识符(等同于名称)的现实世界对象,概念或事件以及关于它的信息。每个项目在维基数据主名字空间中都有对应的页面。项目通过前缀ID(如Q5)或网站链接标识到外部页面,或通过多语言标签描述。数据项也可能有别名来简化查找。数据项的主要数据部分是关于该项的语句的列表。数据项可以被视为linked datatriplet的主题部分。
Help:Items
Item identifier: see QID below.
标签(也是)是识别实体(即itemproperty)的主要名称。 例如:具有物品标识符Q7378的物品具有英文标签“大象”。 每个实体在给定的人类语言中只有一个标签。 标签不需要是唯一的。 Descriptionsaliases用于区分具有相同标签的实体。 Wikidata pages没有标签,但是titles
Help:Labels
Lag or database lag at Wikidata is a delay in the update of data on other projects or Query Server.
语言属性是语言特定的标签别名描述分配给属性查询的。这些是人类可读的文本,以提高对项目范围的理解;例如特定类型的真实世界实体。如果缺少其中的一些可以被替换语言中的字符串替换,请在language fallback chains之后。
Language code is an identifier for the language of a label, description, alias, or monolingual text value. The language codes for label, description, alias are shared with other Wikimedia projects. More codes for the monolingual text are defined specifically for Wikidata. Lexemes use some of these and/or additional codes or items to identify the language in lemma, glos, form. A language code is also assigned to sitelinks. Codes are mostly IETF language tag-based.
Help:Monolingual text languages
Language fallbacks (also language chains) are methods to systematically replace missing language attributes with strings from alternate languages. The exact replacement rules can be chosen depending on the type of page, whether the user is logged in, or the user preferred languages.
Lexeme is an entity of Lexicographical data. It contains sense and form sub-entities, but no sitelinks. Instead of a label, alias and description, lexeme entities have one or several lemma, a language and a lexical category.
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
LID (or L number) The identifier for a lexeme entity in Wikidata, comprising the letter "L" followed by one or more digits.
Listeria (or Wikidata list) is a tool to create to view data from Wikidata in list form at Wikimedia projects. Data is periodically updated by bot.
Template:Wikidata list
Mainspace是wiki中的namespaces之一。除了其他名称空间之外,它没有前缀。在维基数据中,主空间包含带有items的页面。
Help:Namespaces
MediaWiki是运行维基数据、维基百科以及其他维基媒体计划的软件。维基数据所用的Mediawiki软件使用Wikibase扩展。参见什么是Mediawiki
MediaInfo is a type of entity used to describe files. It's activated on Wikimedia Commons.
元页面是全部的非实体页面,即不属于数据名字空间的页面。维基数据元页面包括有传统MediaWiki代码表示的非结构化内容,可能还包括未来的维基数据客户端包含代码。诸如讨论页、分类页、工程页(在维基数据名字空间)和其他帮助页(在帮助名字空间)。元页面还可包含由MediaWiki软件自动生成的内容和数据,例如页面编辑历史或特殊页面
Name item is a Wikidata item about a given name or a family name. Such items are used as values for given name (P735) or family name (P734) and can include additional information and sitelinks.
Wikidata:WikiProject Names
名字空间是在一个站点中,页面的一种分类。每个名字空间可能有不同的规则和内容。在维基数据中,最重要的名字空间(或称'主空间')是维基数据项。这种页面的URL用$s截止,而以数字开始,如“大象”使用Q7378。其他名字空间的页面用名字空间的名称起始,即'字首',如帮助:内容
Help:Namespaces
页面指一个内部或外部的带有唯一标题的网页,例如一个维基百科主名字空间的条目或维基数据主名字空间中的一个。在维基数据,术语“页面”可以指一个数据名字空间中的属性页面或一个其他名字空间的元页面或外部链入页面,它们可以位于维基百科或其他维基项目站点或一个其他外部站点,且用一个网站链接指向了它们。维基数据主名字空间中的页面都是关于的,并且一个页面只能有一个项。
项目维基媒体运动中常见的术语。大多数时候,人们用它表示维基媒体站点。所以在维基数据中,这个术语指的是维基数据本身。
属性是一个说明符,用于描述数据值、关系、组合或可能的无值,但属性不是数据值或值本身。页面的每个声明都链接到一个属性,并且赋予该属性一个或数个值、关系、组合或可能的无值。属性储存在属性名字空间中的页面内且包括了一个属性值的类型申明。与链接化数据相对应,属性代表了一个三元组的断言。
Help:Properties
Property suggester provides a preselection of properties when adding statements to Wikidata items. These are based on the frequency of the properties on similar items. Sample: on an item with instance of (P31)=human (Q5) only, suggestions could be sex or gender (P21), occupation (P106), date of birth (P569). These may or may not be appropriate for the specific item. This is different from entity selector and suggestion constraints.
Help:Suggesters and selectors
Order of statements is generally determined by the view being used and not significant. Many views display data retrieved or entered first before other. Some views sort or allow to sort statements based on qualifier value, statement value, property, or datatype.
QID (or Q number) is the unique identifier of a data item on Wikidata, comprising the letter "Q" followed by one or more digits. It is used to help people and machines understand the difference between items with the same or similar names e.g there are several places in the world called London and many people called James Smith. This number appears next to the name at the top of each Wikidata item.
限定符声称的一部分,它们明确了关于某个声称的一些事项,通常以一种描述性的方式。一个限定符可以是一个词汇表中的术语但也可以是不同的描述性短语(这些术语或短语是任意文字还是一定是某个词汇表的一部分取决于维基数据社区)。
Help:Qualifiers
Quantity (incorrectly number) is a datatype for property values. It allows to enter integers or decimal numbers. Optionally a unit or a bound can be included. The Wikidata property for population has such values. Numeric identifiers are not quantities, but external identifiers.
Help:Data type#Quantity
查询是在维基数据中搜索数据项的功能。到目前为止,可以使用SPARQL查询语言执行查询。计划通过查询功能扩展维基数据,就像一些实体在自己的页面中所定义的那样。
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
QuickStatements (QS) is a third-party tool that can edit Wikidata items, based on a simple set of text commands. The tool can add and remove statements, labels, descriptions, and aliases; as well as add statements with optional qualifiers and sources.
Help:QuickStatements
是一个质量系数,在给定許多属性的声明中,用于简单选择/过滤这些声明。有三种可能的级:
Help:Ranking
Redirecting entity (or redirect) is an item or a lexeme that redirects to another item or lexeme (target). As in many uses these would need to be queried specifically, a bot usually replaces redirects used as values with their target.
Help:Redirects
参考(或称“来源”)指维基数据中某项声明的源头。来源往往本身是个;如一本书。维基数据并非旨在回答关于某项声明正确与否的问题,而仅仅回答相应声明是否由某一参考给出。而究竟什么才是有效的参考,预计将成为维基数据编者之间争论的一个问题。
Help:Sources
Repurposing is changing the definition or scope of an entity, in general an item, by editing its statements, label and/or description. Generally to be avoided.
Sandbox or sandbox items are series of items, properties and other entities at Wikidata to test features within the Wikidata live database. Samples: item Q4115189, Property:P369, EntitySchema:E123, Lexeme:L123.
Sense refers to a specific meaning for a lexeme. Senses are identified on each lexeme by the Lexeme ID followed by a dash, the letter "S" and a number. Senses may have statements just as other entities do. They also allow a "gloss": a free-form description of the meaning (one per language).
Wikidata:Lexicographical data/Glossary
指向所有外部网站中的一个,但是在网链中它仅指向某些特定的已经注册的维基媒体基金会拥有的维基网站,例如某个语言的维基百科,可以很容易地被链入。全局网站标识符或者简写为网站ID指向这些网站。例如英语维基百科的网站ID是enwiki,但它跨维基代码为en:。通常前面的几个字母后面是已注册网站在维基项目内部的域名。链接到这些网站有一些限制。当前的设置下,每个外部页面只能在维基数据注册一个链接,且对于一个,每个外部站点只能有一个链接。
网站链接(跨语言链接)是另一网站上已链接页面的标识。它由一个网站标识符和一个标题构成,并且在维基数据的单独一中存储。它们既可以用于从外部网站识别某个项,也可以用作跨wiki(跨语言)链接的中心存储库。
Help:Sitelinks
Sitelinks between Wiktionary editions are generally not provided through Wikidata, but another function.
Wikidata:Wiktionary/Sitelinks
Snak是一个Wikibase软件的技术词汇,当通过MediaWiki API访问维基数据时,数据用户很可能遇到它。它指向属性(或是特殊值例“无值”和“未知值”)的组合。Snak可以在声称限定符中作为声明找到。“主snak”是最重要的声明部分,例如在声明“Emma Watson曾经是Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone中,Hermione Granger的演员”中,snak指的是前半部分“Emma Watson曾经是Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone的演员”。
声明指记录在某个项的页面之上、关于某一的一些数据。一则声明由一个声称(即属性值对如“地点:德国”,与可选的修饰之组合)构成,加上可选的参考文献(给出声称的来源)和一个可选的等级(用于区分数个具有相同属性的声称)。维基数据并不对声明的正确性做出任何假设,而仅仅收集、记录这些声明,及一个指向来源的参考文献
Help:Statements
(簡自「字符串」)是被譯為文本的(如“你好”)任選字符序列的普遍術語,——与之对应的是一条被解析为数值的数据(3.14)、到其他项的链接(如[[Q1234]])或一个更复杂的数据类型(集{1,3,5,7})。维基数据将支持数据类型“单语言文本”和“多语言文本”,两者都被视为串数据类型及属性
Subject, predicate and object are terms sometimes used to describe a claim when viewing entity, property and value as a triple.
Suggestion constraint is a status of a property constraint that provides suggestions of additional improvements. This can be statements with other properties to be added to the item.
Term (or "termbox") is a part of entity, includes label, description and alias. Terms may only be plain text (i.e. not containing any wiki markup).
标题页面的名称。每个wiki都有独立的标题。在维基数据中标题既可以是项标识符(例如Q42),也可以由名字空间前缀开头,例如Help:。其他维基媒体wiki上页面的标题需要将这些页面通过网站链接接到维基数据上。
Unit is a Wikidata item used with a quantity-value. Frequently used units are metre or EUR, but any item could be used as unit. If the unit includes a conversion to SI unit (P2370)-statement, quantities with the unit are normalized based on that. See mw:Wikibase/Indexing/RDF Dump Format#Normalized values.
(也称数据值)是嵌入在每个声称内的具体信息。根据它们的数据类型,它们可以由单个(如一个数字)或多个数据值(如地理位置具有经度与纬度)组成。也可以选择特殊值例“未知值”或“无值”。
Help:Statements
Value type is the way values are stored internally. Each data type corresponds to one value type. For example, although external identifier, Commons media and mathematical expression are different datatypes, they all use the "string" value type. Values for some data types contain multiple parts with different value types. For example, a quantity contains four parts: "amount", "unit", "upperbound" and "lowerbound", the last two being optional. Unit is a URL which points to a Wikidata item; the other three parts are numbers in string (not floating-point number).
View is a way data can be visualized or accessed. Besides the default view, Wikibase offers views for mobile devices, rdf, json. Data can be accessed with api. Data on Wikidata is mirrored on Wikidata Query Server offering various result views. Some of the views are editing views, others not. Tools and extensions that provide customs views are Reasonator, Article Placeholder, Listeria.
Wikidata:Data access
Wikidata:How to use data on Wikimedia projects
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help/Result Views
Wikibase是支持维基数据的软件。它由一系列MediaWiki软件扩展组成。感谢这些扩展,维基数据可以在属性中管理数据,并查询和显示此数据。
Help:Wikibase
維基數據是一個維基媒體專案,它運行一個帶有Wikibase擴展MediaWiki實例。它允許維基數據編者輸入數據並瀏覽頁面
Wikidata:Introduction
Wikidata Query Service (or WDQS) is the official service for querying Wikidata using the SPARQL query language.
Wikidata:SPARQL query service/Wikidata Query Help
维基媒体是由人和组织组成的运动名称。维基数据与其他wiki(例如维基百科)一样由维基媒体基金会运行。Wikibase软件主要由德国维基媒体协会开发,这是国家维基媒体分会之一。
Help:Wikimedia
Wiki是一个网站的概念。维基百科和维基数据都是wiki。一个wiki一般而言是可以由访问者编辑的网站。
Help:Wiki

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